Lutheran Worship and Resources



Traditional Lutheran worship services, using The Lutheran Hymnal and the KJV.

Norma Boeckler, Artist-in-Residence

The Lutheran Library Publishing Ministry

Bethany Lutheran Worship on
Ustream - Sunday, 10 AM Central.


Thanksgiving Eve - 7 PM Central Time.

Saved worship files and Greek lessons are at the live worship link.

email: greg.jackson.edlp@gmail.com,
which works asgregjacksonedlp@gmail.com too.

Luther's Sermons, Lenker Series
Book of Concord Selections
Martin Chemnitz Press Books

Norma A. Boeckler Author's Page

Pastor Gregory L. Jackson's Author's Page

Saturday, June 21, 2008

The Fifth Sunday after Trinity




The Fifth Sunday after Trinity

Bethany Lutheran Worship, 8 AM Phoenix Time

The Hymn #259 by Luther - Denby
The Invocation p. 15
The Confession of Sins
The Absolution
The Introit p. 16
The Gloria Patri
The Kyrie p. 17
The Gloria in Excelsis
The Salutation and Collect p. 19
The Epistle and Gradual 1 Peter 3:8-15
The Gospel Luke 5:1-11
Glory be to Thee, O Lord!
Praise be to Thee, O Christ!
The Nicene Creed p. 22
The Sermon Hymn #260 Ach Gott vom Himmel
The Sermon
Be Ready To Give An Answer for the Hope

The Hymn #311 by Huss – Jesus Christus, unser Heiland
The Preface p. 24
The Sanctus p. 26
The Lord's Prayer p. 27
The Words of Institution
The Agnus Dei p. 28
The Nunc Dimittis p. 29
The Benediction p. 31
The Hymn #27 – St. Thomas

For hymn commentary, see the previous Sunday’s sermon, which did not get broadcast.

1 Peter 3:8 Finally, be ye all of one mind, having compassion one of another, love as brethren, be pitiful, be courteous: 9 Not rendering evil for evil, or railing for railing: but contrariwise blessing; knowing that ye are thereunto called, that ye should inherit a blessing. 10 For he that will love life, and see good days, let him refrain his tongue from evil, and his lips that they speak no guile: 11 Let him eschew evil, and do good; let him seek peace, and ensue it. 12 For the eyes of the Lord are over the righteous, and his ears are open unto their prayers: but the face of the Lord is against them that do evil. 13 And who is he that will harm you, if ye be followers of that which is good? 14 But and if ye suffer for righteousness' sake, happy are ye: and be not afraid of their terror, neither be troubled; 15 But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts: and be ready always to give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you with meekness and fear:

Luke 5:1 And it came to pass, that, as the people pressed upon him to hear the word of God, he stood by the lake of Gennesaret, 2 And saw two ships standing by the lake: but the fishermen were gone out of them, and were washing their nets. 3 And he entered into one of the ships, which was Simon's, and prayed him that he would thrust out a little from the land. And he sat down, and taught the people out of the ship. 4 Now when he had left speaking, he said unto Simon, Launch out into the deep, and let down your nets for a draught. 5 And Simon answering said unto him, Master, we have toiled all the night, and have taken nothing: nevertheless at thy word I will let down the net. 6 And when they had this done, they inclosed a great multitude of fishes: and their net brake. 7 And they beckoned unto their partners, which were in the other ship, that they should come and help them. And they came, and filled both the ships, so that they began to sink. 8 When Simon Peter saw it, he fell down at Jesus' knees, saying, Depart from me; for I am a sinful man, O Lord. 9 For he was astonished, and all that were with him, at the draught of the fishes which they had taken: 10 And so was also James, and John, the sons of Zebedee, which were partners with Simon. And Jesus said unto Simon, Fear not; from henceforth thou shalt catch men. 11 And when they had brought their ships to land, they forsook all, and followed him.

FIFTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY
O Jesus Christ, Thou Son of the living God, who hast given us Thy holy word, and hast bountifully provided for all our temporal wants, we confess that we are unworthy of all these mercies, and that we have rather deserved punishment: But we beseech Thee, forgive us our sins, and prosper and bless us in our several callings, that by Thy strength we may be sustained and defended, now and forever, and so praise and glorify Thee eternally, Thou who livest and reignest with the Father and the Holy Ghost, one true God, world without end. Amen.

Be Ready To Give An Answer for the Hope Within You

1 Peter 3:15 But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts: and be ready always to give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you with meekness and fear:

The conflict between Christian doctrine and behavior is readily apparent today. Both lessons apply good examples of why we should trust the Word of God to carry out His will, as He has promised in Isaiah 55:8-10, 1 Thessalonians 2:13, and many other places throughout the Scriptures.

1 Thessalonians 2:13 For this cause also thank we God without ceasing, because, when ye received the word of God which ye heard of us, ye received it not as the word of men, but as it is in truth, the word of God, which effectually worketh also in you that believe.

The Word of God works effectively in those who believe, as Paul says. The Word of God is always accompanied by the Holy Spirit. The word of man is not.
The effectiveness of the Word of God makes it unpopular. So people say, “Let’s abandon the Word of God because it disturbs people, makes them angry, and reduces our income.” Notice how church organizations say, “We are doing a great job. Look at all our money.” They never say, “Look at how faithful we are to the Word of God,” because they cannot.

"And it is of advantage, so far as can be done, to adorn the ministry of the Word with every kind of praise against fanatical men, who dream that the Holy Ghost is given not through the Word, but because of certain preparations of their own, if they sit unoccupied and silent in obscure places, waiting for illumination, as the Enthusiasts formerly taught, and the Anabaptists now teach."
Article XIII, The Sacraments, 13, Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Concordia Triglotta, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1921, p. 311. Tappert, p. 213. Heiser, p. 95.

Proof of this is the reaction to Luther quotations. Lutheran leaders hate to have Luther quoted. The supposed saviors of Lutheranism also avoid Luther, who must have theological tuberculosis, to be avoided by so many. One faction loves Walther alone, as if the Reformation started and stopped with one man. Another faction wants us to read everyone except Luther and Chemnitz. They do not rail against the two greatest theologians of the Church. They simply ignore them.

Certainly hundreds of Lutheran clergy have been driven out of the ministry in the last 10 years or so. If we limit ourselves to those who were faithful and did their work, to silence the slanderers, the numbers are still high. These men have not been driven from the ministry but from the synods. They should rejoice. Who wants to be popular with apostate leaders? Who wants to be commended by Satan’s viceroys? I have told more than one deposed pastor – You do not need the synod to be a pastor.

This miracle of catching fish is a good example. The professional fishermen knew better than Jesus that there were no fish to be caught. Notice that he also said – “At thy Word I will let down the net.”

Luke 5:4 Now when he had left speaking, he said unto Simon, Launch out into the deep, and let down your nets for a draught. 5 And Simon answering said unto him, Master, we have toiled all the night, and have taken nothing: nevertheless at thy word I will let down the net. 6 And when they had this done, they inclosed a great multitude of fishes: and their net brake.

Simon knew better than to fish again, but he trusted in Jesus’ Word more than in his own experiences fishing. He had just heard Jesus preaching, and that filled him with faith in the Word. The miraculous abundance is shown in the net breaking. People in that era knew exactly what that meant. Jesus had control over all Creation. Simon Peter said, “Depart from me, for I am a sinful man.” He felt the great contrast between the divinity of Christ and his own frail nature. Nevertheless, as a disciple, Peter often followed his reason and his emotions rather than the Word, examples we see so often in the Gospels. The examples show us that we are like the disciples, for they were like us.

I was thinking today of three different publishers who said they would print Catholic, Lutheran, Protestant, but went back on their word. That did not keep the book out of print. There have been many attempts to silence the Word of God, but in the age of the Internet, that is even more difficult than before.

Why don’t pastors trust the Word? If Luther had behaved like the pastors of today, he would have danced back and forth to keep the Pope happy while sending out secret messages and claiming to be “faithful to the Word.” One kept expressing his outrage of Kieschnick and Yankee Stadium. So I said, “Why not leave with your congregation?” The answer – “I want to stay in the Concordia Pension Plan.” Someone can leave the synod and stay in the plan if he has enough years accumulated.

Any pastor can gather a group of people and start teaching the Word. In fact, the Word attracts people just as surely as it repels people. We are not to sit in judgment over God and tell Him that His Word is not doing our will. Nor can we trim and adjust the Word of God to make it acceptable and popular. Those who try invariably become Unitarian, falling away completely from the Gospel they want to be so appealing. The WELS CGM parish in Green Bay had a “life coach” on the staff until the fact was published on Ichabod.

Jesus was perfect, without sin, kindly and merciful, drawing people to Himself with His gracious nature. Nevertheless, He was crucified as a vile sinner. A book on Julius Caesar pointed out that crucifixion was reserved for the worst of all criminals – for terrorists, to use the modern term. The Son of God was not spared the cross, so He taught us, “He who does not bear the cross daily is not worthy of Me.”

Luke 14:27 And whosoever doth not bear his cross, and come after me, cannot be my disciple.

Peter, converted by the spoken Word of God, which was confirmed by a great miracle, trusted in the Word. The epistle for today is packed with Gospel wisdom. As Luther said about Paul – there is more Gospel per word in the epistle than in the Gospels themselves. The reason is that the Gospels give us necessary narrative while the epistles pour out the meaning of the Gospel Promises in each phrase.

1 Peter 3:12 For the eyes of the Lord are over the righteous, and his ears are open unto their prayers: but the face of the Lord is against them that do evil.

Things do not seem fair for faithful Lutherans right now. We have descended to the time of the 19th century Midwestern migration, when charlatans popped out of every haystack to save the new Lutheran settlers. Many Lutheran pastors came to America because they were driven out of Europe by the state church, the plump bishops with the power of government behind them.

The verse above is comforting. God’s justice will fall upon those who deserve it. “The eyes of the Lord are over those justified by faith (the righteous), and He listens to their prayers. He is dead set against those who do evil.”

Sometimes we see the fall of evildoers before our eyes. At other times they face their future on their deathbeds. Satan blinds them to their folly until the end. Then he shows them the hollowness of their lives and the evil they have done. They finish in despair. Paul Tillich (on the cover of Time magazine) was afraid to die, after spending a lifetime destroying the Christian faith as best he could. (He even shocked his liberal colleagues at Union Seminary, nicknamed The Devil’s Playground.) Pope Pius XII realized at the end of his life that all his compromises with the Communists were complete folly. He also died in despair.

When we look at God’s work as belonging to Him, we can be satisfied at the chance to be part of it. This intrigued two Lutherans who were being led away by non-Lutherans who wanted man to get more credit – errors like man completes what God starts, or man makes God’s Word appealing. They said, “If it is all God’s work, then where do we fit in?” I reminded them that they had the chance to scatter the Word and see it grow. To participate in what God does is a great privilege and joy.

I gave 15 copies of the Brenda Kiehler book away to education professionals. I was making a point about dealing with the disabled. A free book does not get much attention, but they were reading it in class. The hymn verses would probably annoy some. When the Gospel grows, it is God’s will and work. “I planted. Apollos watered, but God gave the growth.”

"The two aorists: 'I planted,' 'he watered,' point into the past--the men did their little work and are gone. So it is still: each performs his little instrumental task and leaves. When he is describing God's activity Paul writes the imperfect hu;xanen (gave the increase) which refers to an act begun in the past but going on and on indefinitely, for the tense is open and sets no terminus. Paul and Apollos have left Corinth, God is still there and causing the growing. Why quarrel about men when the Corinthians should unite in praising God?"
R. C. H. Lenski, Corinthians, Columbus: Wartburg Press, 1947, p. 128.

Someone taught me to put a map of the blog readers on Ichabod. That map shows people all over the world reading Lutheran quotations and jeremiads. Another tool called Technorati revealed how many blogsites were quoting or mentioning Ichabod. The astonishment today is that anyone cares about the Word of God, and clearly many do – all over the world.

Quotations

I. The Means of Grace, General


Heart of the New Testament
"The genuine sacraments, therefore, are Baptism, the Lord's Supper,
and absolution (which is the sacrament of penitence), for these
rites have the commandment of God and the promise of grace, which
is the heart of the New Testament."
Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article XIII, Number/Use
Sacraments, The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert,
Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1983, p. 211.

Losing Sight of the Means of Grace
"To remain properly humble while firmly rejecting all erroneous
teachings regarding the means of grace, we should remind ourselves
how even Christians who teach and, as a rule, also believe, the
correct doctrine of the means of grace, in their personal practice
very often lose sight of the means of grace. This is done whenever
they base the certainty of grace, or of the forgiveness of sin, on
their feeling of grace or the gratia infusa, instead of on God's
promise in the objective means of grace. All of us are by nature
'enthusiasts.'"
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol.,
trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing
House, 1953, III, p. 131.

Luther and the Means of Grace
"No other human writer has so forcefully as Luther set forth the
nature of the divinely ordained means of grace, their importance
for faith and life, and the destructive effect of severing grace
from the means of grace. For Luther was trained in the school of
the terrors of conscience for the work of reforming the Church,
while Zwingli's reformation and theology sprang largely from the
soil of Humanism and bears a speculative stamp throughout.
Calvinistic theology from Calvin down to our day teaches not so
much the God who has revealed and given Himself to us in His Word,
but at the critical points substitutes speculations regarding the
absolute God for what the divine Word teaches."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 137f.

Do the Means of Grace Limit God?
"Scripture binds all knowledge of Christian truth to the Word of
Christ, who says: ean humeis meinete ev tw logw tw emw...gnwsesthe
ten aletheian (John 8:31-32). Faith and regeneration is effected
by the Holy Ghost through the Word (1 Corinthians 2:4-5; 1 Peter
1:23). The Spirit is received through the hearing of faith
(Galatians 3:2, 5). The Word of the Cross (ho logos ho tou
staurou) is the power of God to those who are saved (1 Corinthians
1:18). Hence actually everything that is regarded as brought about
by the Holy Ghost without the Word is factious, 'illusory,'
'self-produced.' The experience one has, or imagines, without the
means of grace is not the product of the Holy Ghost, but is
'man-made.'"
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 136.

"Is it not a limitation of God's sovereignty and power to affirm
that these acts are accomplished only through means? Theology does
not deal with divine possibilities, but with what God has revealed
concerning Himself and His various forms of activity. Not only
have we no promise of His intervention otherwise, but He constantly
turns us away from any expectation of such aid to the simple means,
in and through which He promises to be always found with His entire
efficacy."
Henry Eyster Jacobs,
A Summary of the Christian Faith, Philadelphia: General Council
Publication House, 1913, p. 265.

"But in extraordinary cases, does He not dispense with means?
Even there, means are employed; but in an extraordinary way. At
Pentecost the multitudes were converted through the Word, although
this Word was given under extraordinary conditions and
circumstances, just as the multitudes in the wilderness were
sustained not without bread, but with bread furnished in an
extraordinary manner."
Henry Eyster Jacobs,
A Summary of the Christian Faith, Philadelphia: General Council
Publication House, 1913, p. 266.

Peculiar Glory of the Lutheran Church
"The doctrine of the means of grace is a peculiar glory of Lutheran
theology. To this central teaching it owes its sanity and strong
appeal, its freedom from sectarian tendencies and morbid
fanaticism, its coherence and practicalness, and its adaptation to
men of every race and every degree of culture. The Lutheran
Confessions bring out with great clearness the thought of
the Reformers upon this subject."
"Grace, Means of,"
The Concordia Cyclopedia, L. Fuerbringer, Th. Engelder, P. E.
Kretzmann, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1927,
p. 299.

Power to Work and Strengthen Faith
"We saw before that Scripture ascribes the forgiveness of sins
without reservation to the Word of the Gospel, to Baptism, and to
the Lord's Supper. Therefore all means of grace have the vis
effectiva, the power to work and to strengthen faith." [Note:
Augsburg Confession, V, XIII]
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 108f.

True Treasure
"These means are the true treasure of the church through which
salvation in Christ is offered. They are the objective
proclamation of faith which alone makes man's subjective faith
possible (Augsburg Confession, Article V). The Formula of Concord
(Solid Declaration, Article XI, 76) states expressly that God
alone draws man to Christ and that he does this only through the
means of grace."
Walter G. Tillmanns, "Means of Grace: Use of,"
The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, 3 vol., Julius Bodensieck,
Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1965, II, p. 1505.

"God bestows His saving grace 'only through the Word and with the
external and preceding Word' (nisi per verbum et cum verbo externo
et praecedente, SA-III VIII, 3; Jn 8:31-32; Ro 10:14-17).
Therefore the Bible inculcates faithful adherence to the Gospel and
the Sacraments administered according to Christ's institution (Mt
28:19-20; Jn 8:31-32; Acts 17:11; Titus 1:9). Because of the
strong emphasis on the Word in the Lutheran Confessions,
Holy Scripture has rightly been called the Formal Principle of the
Reformation."
John T. Mueller, "Grace, Means of,"
Lutheran Cyclopedia, Erwin L. Lueker, St. Louis: Concordia
Publishing House, 1975, p. 343. John 8:31; Rom 10:14

"The Holy Spirit works through the Word and the Sacraments, which
only, in the proper sense, are means of grace. Both the Word and
the Sacraments bring a positive grace, which is offered to all who
receive them outwardly, and which is actually imparted to all who
have faith to embrace it."
Charles P. Krauth,
The Conservative Reformation and Its Theology, Philadelphia: The
United Lutheran Publication House, 1871, p. 127.

All Glory to God
"In its teaching on the immutability, unchangeableness, and
permanency of the means of grace, the Lutheran Church gives all
glory to God alone because it teaches that no one, not even a
minister of the Word, can change the means of grace from that which
God instituted."
Edwin E. Pieplow, "The Means of Grace,"
The Abiding Word, ed., Theodore Laetsch, St. Louis: Concordia
Publishing House, 1946, II, p. 333.

"It is God alone who may speak the word of pardon, who can produce
faith, but it is God who is speaking in the Gospel and the
Sacraments (Luke 24:47: 'in His name') and creating faith through
them (Acts 16:14--Lydia; James 1:18; I Thessalonians 2:13). The
word of the Gospel is therefore not a dead letter, nor are the
Sacraments empty symbols, but they are the power of God. The power
of God is inseparably connected with, is inherent in, the means of
grace."
Edwin E. Pieplow, "The Means of Grace,"
The Abiding Word, ed., Theodore Laetsch, St. Louis: Concordia
Publishing House, 1946, II, p. 335. Luke 24:47; Acts 16

Holiness of Church
"The church is recognized, not by external peace but by the Word
and the Sacraments. For wherever you see a small group that has
the true Word and the Sacraments, there the church is if only the
pulpit and the baptismal font are pure. The church does not stand
on the holiness of any one person but solely on the holiness and
righteousness of the Lord Christ, for He has sanctified her by
Word and Sacrament."
Martin Luther,
What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols.,
ed., Ewald Plass, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House,
1959, I, p. 263. Matthew 24:4-7

"From this it follows that they act foolishly, yea, against God's
order and institution, who despise and reject the external Word,
thinking that the Holy Spirit and faith should come to them without
means. It will indeed be a long time before that happens."
Martin Luther,
What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1959, II, p. 915.

Foul Errors
"For we can definitely assert that where the Lord's Supper,
Baptism, and the Word are found, Christ, the remission of sins, and
life eternal are found. On the other hand, where these signs of
grace are not found, or where they are despised by men, not only
grace is lacking but also foul errors will follow. Then men will
set up other forms of worship and other signs for themselves."
Martin Luther,
What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1959, II, p. 914.
Genesis 4:3

God Asked No One's Advice
"In reconciling the world unto Himself by Christ's substitutionary
satisfaction, God asked no one's advice concerning His singular
method of reconciliation. In like manner, without asking any man's
advice, He ordained the means by which He gives men the infallible
assurance of His gracious will toward them; in other words, He both
confers on men the remission of sins merited by Christ and works
faith in the proffered remission or, where faith already exists,
strengthens it. The Church has appropriately called these
divine ordinances the means of grace, media gratiae, instrumenta
gratiae; Formula of Concord: 'Instrumenta sive media Spiritus
Sancti' (Triglotta, p. 903, Solid Declaration, II, 58). They are
the Word of the Gospel, Baptism, and the Lord's Supper, as will be
shown more fully on the following pages."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 103.

"It is also taught among us that man possesses some measure of
freedom of the will which enables him to live an outwardly
honorable life and to make choices among the things that reason
comprehends. But without the grace, help, and activity of the Holy
Spirit man is not capable of making himself acceptable to God, of
fearing God and believing in God with his whole heart, or of
expelling inborn evil lusts from his heart. This is accomplished
by the Holy Spirit, who is given through the Word of God, for Paul
says in 1 Corinthians 2:14, 'Natural man does not receive the gifts
of the Spirit of God.'" [cites Augustine, Hypognosticon contra
Palaginos]
Augsburg Confession, Article XVIII, Freedom of the Will,
The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:
Fortress Press, 1983, p. 39. German trans. 1 Corinthians 2:14

Means of Grace and Victory
"Wherever the means of grace are present, there the Lord Himself is
present, and where the Lord rules there is victory. The true
doctrine of justification is intimately bound up with the true
doctrine of the means of grace. In order to keep the doctrine of
justification in all its purity, one must ever maintain that the
forgiveness of sins which Christ earned for mankind can never be
appropriated by man through any other means than the Word and the
Sacrament. Therefore, Walther said, the correct doctrine on
justification stands or falls with the correct doctrine concerning
the means of grace."
Edwin E. Pieplow, "The Means of Grace," The Abiding Word,
ed., Theodore Laetsch, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House,
1946, II, p. 327. "peculiar glory" passage follows. See Conc Cyc.

Word Not a Lifeless Instrument
"We are not, then, in any way to represent to ourselves the
relation of the Word and the Spirit as though the Word were merely
the lifeless instrument which the Holy Ghost employed, or as
thought the Spirit, when he wished to operate through the Word,
must always first unite himself with it, as if he were
ordinarily separated from it."
Heinrich Schmid,
The Doctrinal Theology of the Ev. Luth. Church, Charles A. Hay,
Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia: Lutheran Publication Society,
1889, p. 505.

Justification and the Means of Grace
"The starting point in presenting the doctrine of the means of
grace must be the universal objective reconciliation or
justification. This is the procedure of Scripture."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 105.

"For Scripture never calls either Baptism or the Lord's Supper
mysteries or sacraments. Therefore this is an unwritten (agraphos)
appellation."
Martin Chemnitz,
Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer, St.
Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II, p. 29.

Anything Else - Of the Devil
"Accordingly, we should and must constantly maintain that God will
not deal with us except through his external Word and sacrament.
Whatever is attributed to the Spirit apart from such Word and
sacrament is of the devil."
Smalcald Articles, Part III, Article VIII, Confession,
The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert,
Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1983, p. 313.

Law Not a Means of Grace
"The Law of God, which is also contained in Scripture, must be
excluded from the concept 'means of grace,' because the Law does
not assure those who have transgressed it--and all men have
transgressed it--of the remission of their sins, or God's grace,
but on the contrary proclaims God's wrath and condemnation. For
this reason the Law is expressly called...'the ministry of
condemnation,' whereas the Gospel is...'the ministry of
righteousness' (2 Cor. 3:9)."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 105.
2 Corinthians 3:9

Opinio Legis
"Native to us is the opinio legis, the religion of the Law. When
we observe virtue in ourselves, we regard God as gracious. When we
discover sin in us and our conscience condemns us because of it, we
fear that God is minded to reject us."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 131.

Practical Need of Christians
"Also the objection that there is no need of offering and
confirming to Christians one and the same forgiveness of sins in
several ways betrays an astonishing ignorance. Both Scripture and
experience teach that men who feel the weight of their sins find
nothing harder to believe than the forgiveness of their sins.
Hence repetition of the assurance of the forgiveness of sins in
various ways through the means of grace meets a practical need of
Christians."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht, St.
Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 114.

Holiness of Church
"The church is recognized, not by external peace but by the Word
and the Sacraments. For wherever you see a small group that has
the true Word and the Sacraments, there the church is if only the
pulpit and the baptismal font are pure. The church does not stand
on the holiness of any one person but solely on the holiness and
righteousness of the Lord Christ, for He has sanctified her by
Word and Sacrament."
Martin Luther,
What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols.,
ed., Ewald Plass, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House,
1959, I, p. 263. Matthew 24:4-7

"From this it follows that they act foolishly, yea, against God's
order and institution, who despise and reject the external Word,
thinking that the Holy Spirit and faith should come to them without
means. It will indeed be a long time before that happens."
Martin Luther,
What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1959, II, p. 915.

Foul Errors
"For we can definitely assert that where the Lord's Supper,
Baptism, and the Word are found, Christ, the remission of sins, and
life eternal are found. On the other hand, where these signs of
grace are not found, or where they are despised by men, not only
grace is lacking but also foul errors will follow. Then men will
set up other forms of worship and other signs for themselves."
Martin Luther,
What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1959, II, p. 914.
Genesis 4:3


II. False Doctrines about the Means of Grace

A. Rome
Rome and Infant Baptism
"Catholic teaching stresses that the faith of the Church supplies
for the child until it is able to make an act of faith on its own."
Kenneth Baker, S.J.,
Fundamentals of Catholicism, 3 vols.,
San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1982, I, p. 112.

"When we say that we acknowledge one Baptism we are giving
affirmation to the infallible teaching of the Church that valid
Baptism imprints on the soul of the recipient an indelible
spiritual mark--called the baptismal 'character'--and
thus cannot be repeated...Thus, Christians validly baptized in an
Orthodox or Protestant church, when they convert to Catholicism,
are not to be rebaptized."
Kenneth Baker, S.J.,
Fundamentals of Catholicism, 3 vols., San Francisco: Ignatius
Press, 1982, I, p. 112.

Rome and Limbo
"Limbo is defined as 'the place or state of infants dying without
the Sacrament of Baptism who suffer the pain of loss but not the
pain of sense.' It may come to you as a surprise to learn that the
Church does not affirm the existence of limbo. Its existence is a
postulate of theologians. The last time limbo was mentioned in a
papal document was by Pius VI in 1794. In that bull he did not
teach the existence of limbo, but rejected the arguments of the
Jansenists against it."
Kenneth Baker, S.J.,
Fundamentals of Catholicism, 3 vols., San Francisco: Ignatius
Press, 1982, II, p. 173.

"The question of limbo is still an unsettled question in Catholic
theology. The Church does not officially endorse the existence of
limbo."
Kenneth Baker, S.J.,
Fundamentals of Catholicism, 3 vols., San Francisco: Ignatius
Press, 1982, II, p. 174.

Gratia Infusa
"But Rome would have us believe that the grace won by Christ moves
God to infuse into man so much grace (gratia infusa), that is,
sanctification and good works--and this, let it be noted, with
man's constant co-operation (Trent, Session VI, canon 4) that he is
enabled truly to merit (vere mereri, Trent, Session VI, canon 32)
justification and salvation, either de congruo (according to
fairness or liberality) or de condigno (by actual merit).
According to Rome, Christ has merited only enough grace to enable
men to merit salvation for themselves."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 117.

"In other words, according to Roman Catholic doctrine, Christ has
secured for sinners so much grace that they, by divine gracious
assistance (infusion of divine powers), can earn salvation
themselves."
Edwin E. Pieplow, "The Means of Grace," The Abiding Word,
ed., Theodore Laetsch, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House,
1946, II, p. 336.

Papistic Media Gratiae
"Therefore the media gratiae in the papistic sense are not means
through which God offers to faith the complete forgiveness of sins
and the salvation merited by Christ, and through that offer also
works faith in man or strengthens the faith already present, but
they are means to incite and aid him to such virtuous endeavors,
under Roman direction, as can gradually and in constantly
increasing measure (Trent, Session VI, chapter 16, canon 32) win
God's grace for him."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 117.

Catholic Church Existed before Bible
"The Catholic Church existed before the Bible; it is possible for
the Catholic Church to exist without the Bible, for the Catholic
Church is altogether independent of the Bible. The Bible does not
give any systematic, complete, and exhaustive treatment of the
doctrine of Christ. In many respects it is, like a stenographer's
notebook, partial and fragmentary, to be supplemented later on in
more elaborate detail by other agencies. Christ never wrote a word
of the Bible. One might naturally expect Him to have set the
example by writing at least some portions of the Bible as if He
intended His followers to take their entire religion from it."
(Thomas F. Coakley, Inside Facts about the Catholic Church,
Catholic Truth Society, p. 21f.
Edwin E. Pieplow, "The Means of Grace,"
The Abiding Word, ed., Theodore Laetsch, St. Louis: Concordia
Publishing House, 1946, II, p. 338.

Ex opere operato
"They [our opponents, the Romanists] imagine that the sacraments
bestow the Holy Spirit ex opere operato without the proper attitude
in the recipient, as though the gift of the Holy Spirit were a
minor matter."
Augsburg Confession, Article IV, Justification,
The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert,
Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1983, p. 115.

The Papal Mass

Transubstantiation
"Transubstantiation is also one of the pillars that support the
papalist kingdom...Rather, it is that they may retain and establish
the sacrifice of the Mass, reservation, carrying about, adoration
of the bread, and all the things which, outside of the divinely
instituted use, have been joined to these things--for this reason
they fight so persistently about transubstantiation."
Martin Chemnitz,
Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II, p. 253.

Mass Theatrics
"They imagine that by means of these actions, motions, gestures,
and ceremonies, with certain words added about sacrifice, oblation,
and victim, they are sacrificing and offering the body and blood of
Christ, yes, Christ, the Son of God Himself, anew to God the Father
through such a theatrical representation (which is either a comedy
or a tragedy) of Christ's passion."
Martin Chemnitz,
Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II, p. 446.

Perversions of the Mass
"That it lacks true, firm, and solid grounds in Scripture is,
however, not the only thing we criticize in the papalist Mass; what
we complain about most of all is that it is an abomination,
conflicting with the doctrine of the Word, the sacraments, and
faith--yes, that it is full of abuse against the unique sacrifice
of Christ and against His perpetual priesthood, as this has
been demonstrated at length by the men on our side in fair and
honest writings."
Martin Chemnitz,
Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II, p. 493.

Mass for the Dead
"In addition there is this perversion, that whereas Christ
instituted the use of His Supper for all who receive it, who take,
eat, and drink, the papalist Mass transfers the use and benefit of
the celebration of the Lord's Supper in our time to the onlookers,
who do not communicate, yes, to those who are absent, and even to
the dead."
Martin Chemnitz,
Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II, p. 498.

"If anyone says that the canon of the Mass contains errors and
should therefore be abrogated, let him be anathema." [Chapter IV,
Canon VI] Chemnitz: "The power, yes, the substance and as it were
the soul of the papalist sacrifice is the canon of the Mass.
Therefore they labor much more for its retention than about the
canon of Scripture itself, which they are not afraid to corrupt by
mixing in other, noncanonical books."
Martin Chemnitz,
Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II, p. 508.

Mass as Sacrifice
"And since in this divine sacrifice, which is accomplished in the
Mass, that same Christ is contained and bloodlessly sacrificed who
once, on the altar of the cross, offered Himself a bloody
sacrifice, the holy synod teaches that this sacrifice is truly
propitiatory and that through it comes to pass that, if we approach
God with a true heart and right faith, with fear and reverence,
contrite and penitent, we obtain mercy and find grace in timely
help." [Sixth Session, Chapter II]
Martin Chemnitz,
Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II, p. 440.

"The Mass is a re-presentation now, in an unbloody manner, of the
bloody sacrifice of the Cross over nineteen hundred years ago.
Since it is a re-offering of Jesus on Calvary, the Mass is rightly
referred to as 'the holy Sacrifice of the Mass,' although we do not
hear this expression much today."
Kenneth Baker, S.J.,
Fundamentals of Catholicism, 3 vols., San Francisco: Ignatius
Press, 1982, I, p. 142f.

"As often as the sacrifice of the cross in which 'Christ, our
passover, has been sacrificed' (1 Cor. 5:7) is celebrated on an
altar, the work of our redemption is carried on."
Lumen Gentium, Dogmatic Constitution of the Church, I, 3,
The Documents of Vatican II,
Walter M. Abbott, S.J., New York: Herder and Herder,
1966, p. 16. 1 Corinthians 5:7

"Taking part in the Eucharistic Sacrifice, which is the fount and
apex of the whole Christian life, they offer the divine Victim to
God, and offer themselves along with It."
Lumen Gentium, Dogmatic Constitution of the Church, I, 11,
The Documents of Vatican II, Walter M. Abbott, S.J.,
New York: Herder and Herder, 1966, p. 28.

"The Eucharistic sacrifice is also offered for the faithful
departed who have died in Christ but are not yet wholly purified.,
so that may be able to enter into the light and peace of Christ..."
[Council of Trent, 1562: DS 1743]
(#1371)
Liberia Editrice Vaticana,
Catechism of the Catholic Church, St. Paul Books and Media,
1994, p. 345.

"'In this divine sacrifice which is celebrated in the Mass, the
same Christ who offered himself once in a bloody manner on the
altar of the cross is contained and is offered in an unbloody
manner.' [Council of Trent, 1562: DS
1743; cf Heb. 9:14, 27."
Liberia Editrice Vaticana,
Catechism of the Catholic Church, St. Paul Books and Media,
1994, p. 344. Hebrews 9:14

"To institute a form of worship beside and without the Word of God,
and indeed one to which is ascribed propitiation for sins,
appeasement of the wrath of God, is a vain thing; it cannot please
God; yes, it is idolatry. For 'in vain they worship Me with
doctrines and commandments of men.' Likewise: 'Without faith it
is impossible that a thing should please God.' Faith, however,
'comes by hearing, and hearing by the revealed Word of God.'"
Martin Chemnitz,
Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II, p. 493.

"The papalist Mass, as we have described it in the beginning,
militates against the one propitiatory sacrifice of Christ in many
ways and is an affront to it. For there is only one propitiatory
sacrifice that expiates and renders satisfaction for sins--the
offering of Christ made on the cross (Hebrews 7:27; 9:12, 26;
10:12)."
Martin Chemnitz,
Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II, p. 494.

"For a sacrifice, according to Augustine, Contra adversarium legis
et prophetarum, Bk. 1, and De civitate Dei, Bk. 10, is a work which
we offer, render, and dedicate to God in order that we may dwell in
Him in holy fellowship. A sacrament, however, is a holy sign
through which God freely offers, conveys, applies, and seals His
gratuitous benefits to us. It is therefore an extraordinary
perversion of the Lord's Supper to make a sacrifice out of a
sacrament, in the way the papalists speak of the sacrifice of their
Mass, namely, that the representatory action of the priest procures
for us the application of the benefits of Christ and that anyone
who causes a Mass to be celebrated in his behalf by this work
procures grace and whatever other things are ascribed to the Mass."
Martin Chemnitz,
Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer, St.
Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II, p. 498.

Mass as Sacrifice Condemned
"At the same time the abominable error was condemned according to
which it was taught that our Lord Jesus Christ had by his death
made satisfaction only for original sin, and had instituted the
Mass as a sacrifice for other sins. This transformed the Mass into
a sacrifice for the living and the dead, a sacrifice by means of
which sin was taken away and God was reconciled...the holy
sacrament was not instituted to make provision for a sacrifice for
sin--for the sacrifice has already take place--but to awaken our
faith and comfort our consciences when we perceive that through the
sacrament grace and forgiveness of sin are promised us by Christ."
Augsburg Confession, Article XXIV, The Mass,
The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:
Fortress Press, 1983, p. 58f. German trans.

Mass and Purgatory
"Our opponents defend the application of the ceremony to free the
souls of the dead, from which they make infinite profits. But for
this they have no scriptural proof or command. It is no mere
peccadillo to establish such services in the church without the
command of God and the example of Scripture, and to apply to the
dead the Lord's Supper which was instituted for commemoration and
preaching among the living."
Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article XXIV, The Mass,
The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:
Fortress Press, 1983, p. 265f.

"Our opponents defend the application of the ceremony to free the
souls of the dead, from which they make infinite profits. But for
this they have no scriptural proof or command. It is no mere
peccadillo to establish such services in the church without the
command of God and the example of Scripture, and to apply to the
dead the Lord's Supper which was instituted for commemoration and
preaching among the living."
Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article XXIV, The Mass,
The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:
Fortress Press, 1983, p. 265f.

"At the same time the abominable error was condemned according to
which it was taught that our Lord Jesus Christ had by his death
made satisfaction only for original sin, and had instituted the
Mass as a sacrifice for other sins. This transformed the Mass into
a sacrifice for the living and the dead, a sacrifice by means of
which sin was taken away and God was reconciled...the holy
sacrament was not instituted to make provision for a sacrifice for
sin--for the sacrifice has already take place--but to awaken our
faith and comfort our consciences when we perceive that through the
sacrament grace and forgiveness of sin are promised us by Christ."
Augsburg Confession, Article XXIV, The Mass,
The Book of Concord,
ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1983,
p. 58f. German trans.

"Then when our [Evangelical] preachers preached about these things
and the priests were reminded of the terrible responsibility which
should properly concern every Christian (namely, that whoever uses
the sacrament unworthily is guilty of the body and blood of
Christ), such mercenary Masses and private Masses, which had
hitherto been held under compulsion for the sake of revenue
and stipends, were discontinued in our churches." [Tappert calls
masses said for the special intention of individuals "Votive
Masses."]
Augsburg Confession, Article XXIV, The Mass, The Book of Concord,
ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia: Fortress Press,
1983, p. 57. German trans.

The Effective Mass
"The most excellent and most efficacious of all the suffrages for
the dead, is the Holy Mass...It is certain that every soul in
Purgatory receives some diminution of its debt by the celebration
of any Mass, even though we cannot measure that diminution
precisely. This is very consoling for us all."
Martin Jugie,
Purgatory and the Means to Avoid It, New York: Spiritual Book
Associates, 1959, p. 96.

"It is 'de fide' that we can help the souls in Purgatory by our
prayers and our works, by the Mass and by Indulgences."
Martin Jugie,
Purgatory and the Means to Avoid It, New York: Spiritual Book
Associates, 1950, p. 59.
381 Fourth Ave, NY 16, NY

"In approving of Masses in Perpetuity for the dead, the Church
approves of such constant remembrance. In this, she shows herself
in disagreement with that strange opinion of P. Dominic Soto, who
played an important part in the Council of Trent. This theologian
affirms that the sufferings of Purgatory are so terrible and the
suffrages of the Church so efficacious, that a soul, no matter what
its debt, cannot remain there more than ten years. That would be
to give the lie to many private revelations."
Martin Jugie,
Purgatory and the Means to Avoid It, New York: Spiritual Book
Associates, 1950, p. 56f.

"Since the coming of Christ, even those souls who come to Purgatory
in schism, in heresy, in infidelity, have a share in the fruit of
the Masses celebrated in the whole universe, in the numerous
suffrages offered by the Church militant."
Martin Jugie,
Purgatory and the Means to Avoid It, New York: Spiritual Book
Associates, 1950, p. 37.

"When a stipend is offered for a Mass to be celebrated for a
particular intention, the priest must offer that Mass as a first
intention. The practice of offering Mass for definite persons can
be traced back to the third century. Thirdly, it is commonly held
by theologians that there is a personal fruit of the Mass which the
Lord grants to the celebrating priest and to all the faithful
who are actually present at each Mass."
Kenneth Baker, S.J.,
Fundamentals of Catholicism, 3 vol., San Francisco: Ignatius
Press, 1983, III, p. 273.

[13th century, after scholastic support of Purgatory] "In any
case, the Church, in the ecclesiastical, clerical sense, drew
considerable power from the new system of the hereafter. It
administered or supervised prayers, alms, masses, and offerings of
all kinds made by the living on behalf of the dead and reaped the
benefits thereof. Thanks to Purgatory the Church developed the
system of indulgences, a source of great power and profit until it
became a dangerous weapon that was ultimately turned back against
the Church."
Jacques Le Goff,
The Birth of Purgatory, trans. Arthur Goldhammer, Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1981, p. 249.

"Communion with the dead. 'In full consciousness of this communion
of the whole Mystical Body of Jesus Christ, the Church in its
pilgrim members, from the very earliest days of the Christian
religion, has honored with great respect the memory of the dead;
and because it is a holy and a wholesome thought to pray for the
dead that they may be loosed from their sins she offers her
suffrages for them.' [footnote #496: Documents of Vatican II,
Lumen Gentium, 50; cf 2 Macc 12:45] Our prayer for them is capable
not only of helping them, but also of making their intercession for
us effective." (#958)
Liberia Editrice Vaticana,
Catechism of the Catholic Church, St. Paul Books and Media,
1994, p. 250. 2 Maccabees 12:45

"A priest is more than one who 'ministers' to others by proclaiming
to them God's Word, by teaching them and by leading them in prayer.
That is the Protestant idea of a minister. The Catholic idea of
the priesthood includes all that, but also adds the reality and
function of 'sacrifice'...Mediation between God and mankind is a
two-way street. The priests offers gifts and sacrifices to
God on behalf of mankind; he also brings gifts and blessings from
God back to the human family."
Kenneth Baker, S.J.,
Fundamentals of Catholicism, 3 vols., San Francisco: Ignatius
Press, 1982, II, p. 287.

Augustine and Purgatory Help
"Since this is so, we should not think that any aid comes to the
dead for whom we are providing care, except what we solemnly pray
for in their behalf at the altars, either by sacrifices of prayers
or of alms...It is better that there be a superabundance of aids
for those to whom these works are neither a hindrance nor a help,
than that there be a lack for those who are thus aided."
Augustine, On the Care to Be Given to the Dead, conclusion
Jacques Le Goff,
The Birth of Purgatory, trans. Arthur Goldhammer, Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1981, p. 82.
Vatican II and Purgatory
"If those who are truly penitent die in charity before they have
done sufficient penance for their sins of omission or commission,
their souls are cleansed after death in purgatorial or cleansing
punishments....The suffrages of the faithful on earth can be of
great help in relieving these punishments, as for instance, the
Sacrifice of the Mass, prayers, almsgiving and other religious
deeds..." [Florence, 127; confirmed by Vatican II]
Kenneth Baker, S.J.,
Fundamentals of Catholicism, 3 vol., San Francisco: Ignatius
Press, 1983, III, p. 156. Denzinger 464; Vatican II Consti. Ch.,
no. 51

Council of Trent and Purgatory
"The Council of Trent (1563) in reaction to the Reformers
reaffirmed the Church's teaching on Purgatory, on the value of
prayers for the dead and especially of the Sacrifice of the Mass.
Again and again the Church has restated this doctrine down to our
own time. It is clearly taught in the Second Vatican Council, and
more recently The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
defended the practice of prayers, funeral rites and veneration of
the dead."
Kilian Healy, O.Carm.,
The Assumption of Mary, Wilmington, Delaware: Michael Glazier,
1982, p. 127.

Comforting Thoughts of Purgatory
"We read in the Life of St. Elizabeth of Portugal that after the
death of her daughter Constance she learned the pitiful state of
the deceased in Purgatory and the price which God exacted for her
ransom...that she was condemned to long and terrible suffering, but
that she would be delivered if for the space of a year the Holy
Sacrifice of the Mass was celebrated for her every day."
Rev. F. X. Schouppe, S.J.,
Purgatory, Illustrated by the Lives and Legends of the Saints,
Rockford: Tan Books, 1973, p. 158.

Money for Masses
"To set aside a part of one's fortune for the celebration of Masses
for the souls in Purgatory, either in perpetuity or for a
considerable time, is to exercise the Apostolate of Purgatory even
after death."
Martin Jugie,
Purgatory and the Means to Avoid It, New York: Spiritual Book
Associates, 1959, p. 198.

"In approving of Masses in Perpetuity for the dead, the Church
approves of such constant remembrance. In this, she shows herself
in disagreement with that strange opinion of P. Dominic Soto, who
played an important part in the Council of Trent. This theologian
affirms that the sufferings of Purgatory are so terrible and the
suffrages of the Church so efficacious, that a soul, no matter what
its debt, cannot remain there more than ten years. That would be
to give the lie to many private revelations."
Martin Jugie,
Purgatory and the Means to Avoid It, New York: Spiritual Book
Associates, 1950, p. 56f. 381 Fourth Ave, NY 16, NY

"There is another manner of augmenting the efficacy of the Mass for
the help and deliverance of the souls. It is to assist at the
Mass, and united oneself therewith, to pray fervently for the
dead."
Martin Jugie,
Purgatory and the Means to Avoid It, New York: Spiritual Book
Associates, 1959, p. 98.

"These stipends are in no sense the price of the Mass; to think so
would be simoniacal and mercenary. The stipend is an alms made to
the Church in the person of her minister, for his support and for
the expenses incurred."
Martin Jugie,
Purgatory and the Means to Avoid It, New York: Spiritual Book
Associates, 1959, p. 97.

Mary as Co-Redeemer
"The Church imitates Mary's burning charity and unshakable faith in
offering Jesus at the sacrifice of the Mass...On the hill of
Calvary, Mary first offered in perfect faith her Son to God the
Father as she stood beneath the cross. We, too, like Mary, should
offer the sacrifice of Jesus at every Mass. Every time Mass is
offered Mary still makes the same offering from heaven."
Father Robert J. Fox,
The Marian Catechism, Washington, New Jersey: AMI Press,
1983, p. 68-70.

B. Enthusiasm

Means of Grace
"The Christian doctrine of the means of grace is abolished by all
'enthusiasts,' all who assume a revealing and effective operation
of the Holy Spirit without and alongside the divinely ordained
means of grace."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 127.

"For the devil at all times assaults the grace of God; no heresy
can bear the teaching of divine grace."
Martin Luther (on Deut 4:24; St. L. III, 1691 ff.)
C. F. W. Walther,
The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel, trans., W. H. T.
Dau, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1928, p. 160.

Revivalism and Enthusiasm
"The crudest extravagances of revivalism (Methodism,
Pentecostalism, Holy Rollerism) have their root in this
specifically Reformed doctrine of the immediate working of the Holy
Spirit." [Fuller Seminary is known for its Pentecostal extremism,
including C. Peter Wagner's "Signs and Wonders" course.]
"Grace, Means of,"
The Concordia Cyclopedia, L. Fuerbringer, Th. Engelder, P. E.
Kretzmann, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1927,
p. 299.

"A denial of the efficacy and sufficiency of the means of grace is
contained in the theological systems of all religious enthusiasts."
Edwin E. Pieplow, "The Means of Grace,"
The Abiding Word,
ed., Theodore Laetsch, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House,
1946, II, p. 343.

"The Lutheran theologians, in general, had reason to illustrate
very particularly the doctrine of the operation of the Word of God,
in order to oppose the Enthusiasts and Mystics, who held that the
Holy Spirit operated rather irrespectively of the Word than through
it; and to oppose also the Calvinists, who, led by their doctrine
of predestination, would not grant that the Word possessed this
power per se, but only in such cases where God chose...."
Heinrich Schmid,
The Doctrinal Theology of the Ev. Luth. Church, Charles A. Hay,
Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia: Lutheran Publication Society,
1889, p. 511.

"The Lutheran Confessions take a decisive stand against
'enthusiasts,'who teach that the Holy Spirit works in the hearts of
men without the Word and Sacraments (SA-III VIII 3-13; LC II 34-62;
FC Ep II 13)."
John T. Mueller, "Grace, Means of," Lutheran Cyclopedia,
Erwin L. Lueker, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House,
1975, p. 344.

"Likewise, we reject and condemn the error of the Enthusiasts who
imagine that God draws men to himself, enlightens them, justifies
them, and saves them without means, without the hearing of God's
Word and without the use of the holy sacraments." [Tappert - "A
marginal note at this point reads: 'Enthusiasts is the term for
people who expect the Spirit's heavenly illumination without the
preaching of God's Word.'"]
Formula of Concord, Epitome, Article II, Free Will,
The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:
Fortress Press, 1983, p. 471.

"It is indeed correct and true what Scripture states, that no one
comes to Christ unless the Father draw him. [John 6:44] But the
Father will not do this without means, and he has ordained Word and
sacraments as the ordinary means or instruments to accomplish this
end. It is not the will of either the Father or the Son that any
one should refuse to hear or should despise the preaching of his
Word and should wait for the Father to draw him without Word
and sacraments." [See SD, II, 4, 80]
Solid Declaration, Article XI, Election,
The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:
Fortress Press, 1959, p. 628f.


C. Calvin and Zwingli


Reformed Rationalism
"Behind the Reformed teaching of the means of grace looms the
rationalistic thought, foreign to Scripture, that divine
omnipotence, which is needed to bring about faith and regeneration,
cannot be exercised through means."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 147.

Young Calvinist, Old Unitarian
"...it is exceedingly difficult to prevent this low view from
running out into Socinianism, as, indeed, it actually has run in
Calvinistic lands, so that it became a proverb, often met with in
the older theological writers--'A young Calvinist, an old
Socinian.' This peril is confessed and mourned over by great
Calvinistic divines. New England is an illustration of it on an
immense scale, in our own land."
Charles P. Krauth,
The Conservative Reformation and Its Theology, Philadelphia: The
United Lutheran Publication House, 1871, p. 489.

Rejection of the Sacraments
"They separate grace from Baptism and leave us a mere external
sign, in which there is not a grain of mercy; all grace has been
cut away. Now, if the grace of Christ has been removed from
Baptism, there remains nothing but a mere work. Likewise, in the
Sacrament of the Lord's Supper the fanatics remove the promise
offered us in this Sacrament; they tell us that what we eat and
drink is nothing but bread and wine. Here, too, the proffered
grace is cut away and renounced. For they teach us that the only
good work that we do by communing is professing Christ; as to the
rest, we merely eat and drink bread and wine in the Supper, and
there is no grace in it for us. That is the result of falling away
from the First Commandment: a person promptly sets up an idol in
the form of some meritorious work, in which he trusts." (Luther,
on Deut. 4:28; St. L. III, 1691 ff.)
C. F. W. Walther,
The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel, trans., W. H. T.
Dau, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1928, p. 160.
Deuteronomy 4:28

Denial of Real Presence
"Whoever denies the Real Presence of the body and blood of Christ
in the Lord's Supper must pervert the words of Institution where
Christ the Lord, speaking of that which He gives His Christians to
eat, says: 'This is My body,' and, speaking of that which He gives
them to drink, says: 'This is My blood.' [Also 1 Cor. 10:16]
Francis Pieper,
The Difference between Orthodox and Heterodox Churches, and
Supplement
, Coos Bay, Oregon: St. Paul's Lutheran Church,
1981, p. 40. 1 Corinthians 10:16

Rejection Condemned
"On the other side, we unanimously reject and condemn all the
following errors... 6. That bread and wine in the Holy Supper are
no more than tokens whereby Christians recognize one another.
[Tappert note - Zwingli, De vera et falsa religione, Opera, III,
145ff.] 7. That the bread and wine are only figures, images, and
types of the far-distant body and blood of Christ. 8. That the
bread and wine are no more than reminders, seals, and pledges to
assure us that when our faith ascends into heaven, it there
partakes of the body and blood of Christ as truly as we eat and
drink bread and wine in the Supper."
[Tappert note - View of Calvin on 1 Cor. 11:23, C. R. 49:483]
Formula of Concord, Epitome, Article VII, The Lord's Supper,
The Book of Concord,
ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia: Fortress Press,
1983, p. 485. 1 Corinthians 11:23

No Means of Grace for Calvinists
"Because saving grace is particular, according to the teaching of
the Calvinists, there are no means of grace for that part of
mankind to which the grace of God and the merit of Christ do not
extend. On the contrary, for these people the means of grace are
intended as means of condemnation. Calvin teaches expressly: 'For
there is a universal call, through which, by the external preaching
of the Word, God invites all, indiscriminately, to come to Him,
even those for whom He intends it as a savor of death and an
occasion of heavier condemnation' (Institutes, III, 24, 8)."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 118f.

"But according to the teaching of Calvinism this 'inner
illumination' is not brought about through the means of grace; it
is worked immediately by the Holy Ghost. Modern Reformed, too,
teach this very emphatically. Hodge, for example, says: 'In the
work of regeneration all second causes are excluded....Nothing
intervenes between the volition of the Spirit and the regeneration
of the soul....The infusion of a new life into the soul is the
immediate work of the Spirit....The truth (in the case of
adults)[that is, the setting forth of the truth of the Gospel
through the external Word] attends the work of regeneration, but is
not the means by which it is effected." [Hodge, Systematic
Theology, II, 634f.]
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 120.

"Reformed theologians, in order to support their denial of the
illocalis modus subsistendi of Christ's human nature, have sought,
in their exposition of John 20, an opening in the closed doors, or
a window, or an aperture in the roof or in the walls, in order to
explain the possibility of Christ's appearance in the room where
the disciples were assembled."
Francis Pieper
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vols., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1950, II, p. 127.
See also I, 25ff., III, 324 John 20:19

"Die Ansicht der Kalvinisten von dem nichts wirkenden Wort der
Absolution ist ganz gemaess ihrer Grundansicht vom Wort ueberhaupt,
nach welcher es nichts als blosse Darstellung und Lehre ist und an
sich selbst unwirksam."
Adolf Hoenecke:
Evangelische Lutherische Dogmatik, 4 vol., ed., Walter and Otto
Hoenecke, Milwaukee: Northwestern Publishing House, 1909,
IV, p. 199.

"Thus Calvin, as we saw, cautions against seeking to discern one's
election from the universal call, that is, from the Word of the
Gospel (Institutes, III, 24, 8). Likewise the Consensus Tigurinus
(c. 20) warns against the thought that the 'visible sign [the
Sacraments], in the same moment when it is being offered, brings
with it the grace of God' (Niemeyer, p. 195). The Geneva
Catechism, too, enjoins ['De Sacramentis'], that salvation must not
be sought in the visible signs."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 145.

Calvin Confused about Gospel
"Let the threatenings of the gospel terrify us, and humble us in
time..."
John Calvin, Commentaries, Acts 5:5, CO XLVIII, 99.
Benjamin Milner, Calvin's Doctrine of the Church, Heicko A.Oberman,
Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1970, p. 93n.

Word Separate from Spirit
"The word of God is not set before all men that they return to
soundness of mind; but the external voice sounds in the ears of
many, without the effectual working of the Spirit, only that they
may be made inexcusable."
John Calvin, Commentaries, Acts 28:26; CO XLVIII, 571,
Benjamin Milner,Calvin's Doctrine of the Church, Heicko A.Oberman,
Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1970, p. 93n.

"I grant that doctrines ought to be tested by God's word; but
unless the Spirit of wisdom (spiritus prudentiae) is present, to
have God's word in our hands will avail little or nothing, for its
meaning will not appear to us...."
John Calvin, Commentaries, 1 Jn 4:1; CO LV, 347-48.
Benjamin Milner,Calvin's Doctrine of the Church,
Heicko A.Oberman, Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1970, p. 105.

"Though he withheld at that time the words of his mouth, yet he
spoke within to the mind of the woman, and so this secret instinct
(arcanum hunc instinctum) was a substitute for the outward
preaching."
John Calvin, Commentaries, Mt 15:23; CO XLV, 457.
Benjamin Milner, Calvin's Doctrine of the Church, Heicko A.Oberman,
Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1970, p. 108.

"He also convinced them without the word, for we know how powerful
are the secret instincts of the Spirit (arcani spiritus
instinctus)."
John Calvin, Commentaries, Amos 4:12; CO XLIII, 68.
Benjamin Milner, Calvin's Doctrine of the Church,
Heicko A.Oberman, Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1970, p. 108n.

"...we are touched with some desire for strong doctrine, it
evidently appears that there is some piety in us; we are not
destitute of the Spirit of God, although destitute of the outward
means."
John Calvin, Commentaries, Amos 8:11-12; CO XLIII, 153.
Benjamin Milner, Calvin's Doctrine of the Church,
Heicko A.Oberman, Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1970, p. 109.

"If the Spirit be lacking, the sacraments can accomplish nothing
more in our minds than the splendor of the sun shining upon blind
eyes, or a voice sounding in deaf ears."
John Calvin, Institutes, IV, xiv, 9,
Benjamin Milner, Calvin's Doctrine of the Church, Heicko A.Oberman,
Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1970, p. 119.

Sacraments
"The Sacraments are not mere symbolic expressions by which faith is
strengthened (Calvin), nor are they mere acts of confession of
faith (notae professionis, Zwingli), but are effective means by
which God sows faith in the hearts of men."
Walter G. Tillmanns, "Means of Grace: Use of,"
The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, 3 vol.,
Julius Bodensieck, Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House,
1965, II, p. 1506.

"But the sacraments properly fulfill their office only when the
Spirit, that inward teacher, comes to them, by whose power alone
hearts are penetrated and affections moved and our souls opened for
the sacraments to enter in. If the Spirit be lacking, the
sacraments can accomplish nothing more in our minds than
the splendor of the sun shining upon blind eyes, or a voice
sounding in deaf ears."
Benjamin Charles Milner, Jr.,
Calvin's Doctrine of the Church, Leiden: E. J. Brill,
1970, p. 119. Insti. IV.xiv.9

Calvin and the Means of Grace
"Wherever we see the Word of God purely preached and heard, and the
sacraments administered according to Christ's institution, there,
it is not to be doubted, a church of God exists."
Benjamin Charles Milner, Jr.,
Calvin's Doctrine of the Church, Leiden: E. J. Brill,
1970, p. 100. Insti. IV.i.9

"Calvinism rejects the means of grace as unnecessary; it holds that
the Holy Spirit requires no escort or vehicle by which to enter
human hearts."
John T. Mueller, "Grace, Means of,"
Lutheran Cyclopedia, Erwin L. Lueker, St. Louis: Concordia
Publishing House, 1975, p. 344.

"The Lutheran Church Faces the World by Clinging to the Means of
Grace. The doctrine of the means of grace is truly a most timely
subject. For just in these last times, according to divine
revelation, there will be at work many spiritual brigands who will
perpetrate the grossest kind of deception."
Edwin E. Pieplow, "The Means of Grace," The Abiding Word,
ed., Theodore Laetsch, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House,
1946, II, p. 322.

Calvin and Baptism
"Baptism seals to us the salvation obtained by Christ."
Benjamin Charles Milner, Jr.,
Calvin's Doctrine of the Church, Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1970,
p. 116. Titus 3:5

"The nature of baptism or the Supper must not be tied down to an
instant of time. God, whenever He sees fit, fulfills and exhibits
in immediate effect that which he figures in the sacrament. But no
necessity must be imagined so as to prevent His grace from
sometimes preceding, sometimes following, the use of the sign."
Benjamin Charles Milner, Jr.,
Calvin's Doctrine of the Church, Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1970,
p. 121. Against Joachim Westphal

"Therefore, a part of revelation consists in baptism, that is, so
far as it is intended to confirm our faith."
Benjamin Charles Milner, Jr.,
Calvin's Doctrine of the Church, Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1970,
p. 116. Titus 3:5

Calvin Piously Denies Real Presence
"We must establish such a presence of Christ in the supper as may
neither fasten Him to the element of bread, not enclose Him in
bread, not circumscribe Him in any way (all of which clearly
derogate from His heavenly glory)...."
Benjamin Charles Milner, Jr.,
Calvin's Doctrine of the Church, Leiden: E. J. Brill,
1970, p. 128. Insti.IV.xvii.19

Calvin and Zwingli
"In fact, there is no basis for a real disagreement between Zwingli
and Calvin. The situation here is analogous to the one that
obtains in the doctrine of Christ's Person and Word and the
doctrine of the Lord's Supper. In these doctrines Zwingli and
Calvin and all Reformed will agree as long as they all
teach that Christ's body can possess only a local and visible mode
of subsistence or presence. Similarly, Zwingli and Calvin cannot
differ materially in their teaching on the means of grace because
they agree, first, that Christ's merit and saving grace do not
apply to all who use the means of grace; secondly, that saving
grace is not bound to the means of grace."
Francis Pieper
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vols., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1950, III, p. 163.

"Whoever does not make conversion and salvation dependent solely on
the grace of God, but also on the conduct of man, he must actually
cross out hundreds of Bible passages."
Francis Pieper,
The Difference between Orthodox and Heterodox Churches, and
Supplement
, Coos Bay, Oregon: St. Paul's Lutheran Church,
1981, p. 40. 1 Peter 1:5

Analysis of Valleskey's defense of CG in the WLQ.
Gregory L. Jackson, "Figs From Thistles," Steve Spencer, ed.,
Orthodox Lutheran Forum, September 27, 1991.

"Calvin was dissatisfied with Zwingli's interpretation of the
Lord's Supper, but his own interpretation was also wrong. He said
that a person desiring to receive the body and blood of Christ
could not get it under the bread and wine, but must by his faith
mount up to heaven, where the Holy Spirit would negotiate a way for
feeding him with the body and blood of Christ. These are mere
vagaries, which originated in Calvin's fancy. But an incident
like this shows that men will not believe that God bears us poor
sinners such great love that He is willing to come to us."
C. F. W. Walther,
The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel, trans., W. H. T.
Dau, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1928, p. 185.

"Furthermore, consider this: All doctrines of the Bible are
connected with one another; they form a unit. One error draws
others in after it. Zwingli's first error was the denial of the
presence of Christ's body and blood in the Lord's Supper. In order
to support this error, he had to invent a false doctrine of
Christ's Person, of heaven, of the right hand of God, etc."
Francis Pieper,
The Difference between Orthodox and Heterodox Churches, and
Supplement
, Coos Bay, Oregon: St. Paul's Lutheran Church,
1981, p. 41.

Nine Lies to Defend One Lie
"Thus in heterodox churches, in order to defend false doctrine,
God's Word must continually be denied. It is rightly said: 'It
cost nine lies to maintain one lie.' Whoever allows himself such
liberties with the Word of God, let him beware, lest the devil also
make this clear Word doubtful for him in the hour of death: 'The
blood of Jesus Christ, His Son, cleanseth us from all sin.'
1 John 1:7"
Francis Pieper, The Difference between Orthodox and
Heterodox Churches, and Supplement
, Coos Bay, Oregon: St. Paul's
Lutheran Church, 1981, p. 40. 1 John 1:7

Zwingli: Bold and Vulgar
"I believe, yea, I know, that all the Sacraments are so far from
conferring grace that they do not even convey or distribute it. In
this, most powerful Emperor, I may perhaps appear too bold to thee.
But I am firmly convinced that I am right."
Francis Pieper
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vols., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1950, III, p. 132f.
Fidei Ratio, ed. Niemeyer, p. 24;

"Zwingli is a good example of those who separate grace from the
means of grace. His assertion that the Holy Ghost needs no vehicle
(vehiculum) is well known. And this rule he applies not only to
the Sacraments but to the Word of the Gospel as well."
Francis Pieper
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vols., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1950, III, p. 127.
Fidei Ratio, ed. Niemeyer, p. 24;

"In what vulgar terms does Zwingli here speak of these sacred
matters! When the Holy Spirit wants to approach man, He does not
need the Word of God, the Gospel, Baptism, the Lord's Supper, for
a conveyance; He can come without them! It must be a queer Bible
which Zwingli read."
C. F. W. Walther,
The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel, trans., W. H. T.
Dau, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1928, p. 156.

"In other words, Zwingli and his numerous adherents declare that
the means God has ordained are unnecessary and hinder true piety."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 104.

"Church. An assembly of professed believers under the discipline
of the Word of God, organized to carry out the Great Commission,
administer the ordinances, and minister with spiritual gifts."
C. Peter Wagner, ed., with Win Arn and Elmer Towns,
Church Growth: The State of the Art, Wheaton: Tyndale House,
1986, p. 283f.

The Reformed


"Observe, then, the depreciative, contemptuous, and scorning ring
in the words of the Reformed when they speak of the sacred Means of
Grace, the Word and the Sacraments, and the grand majestic ring in
the words of the Lord and the apostles when they speak of these
matters...The true reason for the Reformed view is this: They do
not know how a person is to come into possession of the divine
grace, the forgiveness of sin, righteousness in the sight of God,
and eternal salvation. Spurning the way which God has appointed,
they are pointing another way, in accordance with new devices which
they have invented."
C. F. W. Walther,
The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel, trans., W. H. T.
Dau, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1928, p. 152f.

"Die reformierte Unterscheidung zwischen der aeusseren
Sakramentshandlung und der unsichtbaren Handlung des Heiligen
Geistes ist die alte Trennung von Geist und Gnadenmittel."
Adolf Hoenecke:
Evangelische Lutherische Dogmatik, 4 vol., ed., Walter and Otto
Hoenecke, Milwaukee: Northwestern Publishing House,
1909, IV, p. 57.

Reformed Preaching
"Hence, too, the lack of emphasis, even in the best of Reformed
preaching, upon the divine Word as the vehicle of regenerating
grace and on the Sacraments. The office of the Word, then, is
merely to point to the way of life, without communicating that of
which it conveys the idea. The Word and Sacraments are declared to
be necessary; their office in the Church is a divine institution;
but they are only symbols of what the Spirit does within; and the
Spirit works immediately and irresistibly."
"Grace, Means of,"
The Concordia Cyclopedia, L. Fuerbringer, Th. Engelder, P. E.
Kretzmann, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1927,
p. 298.

"It is, for example, very terrible that the Lutheran Church,
because it has the true doctrine of Baptism and the Lord's Supper,
is decried as 'Catholic.' This attack against the true Church is
no small matter."
Francis Pieper,
The Difference between Orthodox and Heterodox Churches, and
Supplement
, Coos Bay, Oregon: St. Paul's Lutheran Church,
1981, p. 44.

"Some time ago, a respected Presbyterian preacher in St. Louis
confessed that if he in his congregation would try to have God's
Word rule as it does with us, in four weeks his whole congregation
would scatter. The sects owe their outward size mostly to this,
that they play church instead of actually conducting themselves as
God's Church. Neither do they rightly bear witness of the Law of
God to man, nor do they act as true witnesses of God's grace. But,
this is what the Lutheran Church does."
Francis Pieper,
The Difference between Orthodox and Heterodox Churches, and
Supplement
, Coos Bay, Oregon: St. Paul's Lutheran Church,
1981, p. 46.

Reformed Not Consistent
"Furthermore, the reminder is in place that the Reformed teachers
are not even consistent in what they teach regarding the means of
grace...But inasmuch as this inconsistency makes room for the
divine truth, the Holy Spirit is given the opportunity to perform
His work of kindling faith in the Gospel. This circumstance
should, of course, not induce us to become indifferent to
the Reformed errors in the doctrine of the means of grace. We are
confident that we have amply shown their unscripturalness and the
complete revolution they cause in the relation God has ordained
between Himself and men, because they do not place man on the Word
of grace and thus on Christ and God Himself, but direct man to take
his stand on himself and his own product. Hence indifferentism
here is surely not in place."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 161f.

"Luther holds that all who deny that the Word and the Sacraments
dispense the forgiveness of sins, who therefore find it
particularly offensive if men remit sins, do not actually take
God's Word to be God's Word, but regard it as merely the word of
men. See St. L. XIX:945; XIII:2441, etc."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 207.

Contempt for Means of Grace
"Another defect of Reformed preaching is its contempt for the Means
of Grace. They will tell you that the Holy Spirit needs no
vehicle, neither ox-cart nor aeroplane, to enter the heart of man;
and by this rationalistic argument they think to have done away
with the Means of Grace. But notice how they set about immediately
to construct their own Means of Grace. Luther told them in his
day:'If the Holy Spirit needs no vehicle, no preaching, then why
are you here? And why are you so earnest in spreading your errors?
It seems that what you really meant to say was that the Holy Spirit
does not need true prophets, but He is very much in need of false
prophets.' If the Holy Spirit needs no Means of Grace, who do these
Reformed churches undertake their campaigns of revivalism?"
Martin S. Sommer,
Concordia Pulpit for 1932, Martin S. Sommer, St. Louis: Concordia
Publishing House, 1931, p. iv.

Spiritual Pride
"Another very repulsive concomitant of the Reformed false teaching
is spiritual pride. Because those who harbor the conception of an
activity of the Holy Ghost apart from the means of grace are
dealing in an illusory, man-made quality, they regard themselves,
as experience amply proves, as the truly spiritual people and
first-class Christians, while they consider those who in simple
faith abide by the divinely appointed means of grace,
intellectualists,' having a mere Christianity of the head; at best,
second-rate Christians."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 162.

Prayer Not a Means of Grace
"The Christian's faith trusts in the ordinary means. Prayer is not
a means of grace. Means of grace are divine appointments through
which God uniformly offers blessings to all who use them. Faith is
the means by which the blessings are received and appropriated.
God gives us bread, when we ask it, not through the channel of
prayer, but through the ordinary channels of His providence. He
gives us grace when we ask it, not through prayer, but through the
ordinary means appointed for this end, namely the Word and
Sacraments. He who despises these will as little have grace as he
who refuses to accept bread produced in the ordinary way of nature.
Faith asks with confidence, and trusts in the ordinary means of
God's appointment for the blessings asked."
Matthias Loy,
Sermons on the Gospels, Columbus: Lutheran Book Concern,
1888, p. 387.

Reformed and the Means of Grace
"There is no Scripture proof for the Reformed teaching of the means
of grace."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 144.

"The Reformed are simply deluding themselves in claiming Scripture
support for their teaching regarding the means of grace. Their
teaching is not derived from the Bible."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 150.

"Our opponents hold that saving faith must be founded on Christ
Himself, not on the means of grace. This reasoning, common to the
Reformed, the 'enthusiasts' of all shades, and modern 'experience'
theologians, assumes that faith can and should be based on Christ
to the exclusion of the means of grace."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 152.

Reformed on Warpath against Means of Grace
"Moreover, the advocates of this error [Reformed advocates, against
the Means of Grace] are by no means always irenic people. Rather,
they go on the warpath and malign the Biblical truth in many ways."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 162.

Self-Deception
"Another species of self-deception needs to be pointed out in this
connection. We meet it in the Reformed theologians of every era
and also in their confessions. We are thinking of their endeavor
to assign to the means of grace the function of externally
expressing, confirming, and sealing what the Holy Ghost works
immediately and internally."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 156.

"Some may regard as a 'hard saying' our verdict that the Reformed
doctrine of an immediate operation of the Spirit reduces personal
Christianity to human subjectivism and what amounts to
self-deception."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 159.

Karl Barth
"The means of grace are thus limited for Barth. The preacher
descending from the pulpit can never quote Luther and say with
joyful assurance that he has preached the Word of God. Of course,
he can hope and pray; but he can never know whether the Holy Spirit
has accompanied the preached Word, and hence whether his words were
the Word of God. To know this, or even to wish to know it, would
be a presumptuous encroachment of man upon the sovereign freedom of
God."
Hermann Sasse, Here We Stand, trans. Theodore G. Tappert,
Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1946, p. 161.

Hodge and Means of Grace
"In describing the Lutheran doctrine as binding the activity of the
Holy Ghost to the Word of God, Charles Hodge ventures to remark:
'This theory cuts us off from all intercourse with the Spirit and
all dependence upon Him as a personal voluntary agent.'" (Hodge,
Systematic Theology, III, p. 482; also II, p. 656f.)
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 152.

Synergists
"Behind the synergists' teaching regarding the means of grace,
which makes room for assistance by man, lurks the denial of the
perfection of the reconciliation effected by Christ's work of
redemption."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 125.

Heretics' Enmity
"Luther's remark about the enmity of all heretics against the grace
of God is an important axiomatic statement. Every heresy that has
sprung up was caused by the heretic's inability to believe that man
becomes righteous in the sight of God, and is saved, by grace
alone. That is the real rock of offense against which all
heretics, all false teachers, dash their head."
C. F. W. Walther,
The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel, trans., W. H. T.
Dau, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1928, p. 163.

Lutheran Confessions passages: Apology VII-VIII 36; SA-III VIII 10;
FC SD II 48; AC V
John T. Mueller, "Grace, Means of,"
Lutheran Cyclopedia, Erwin L. Lueker, St. Louis: Concordia
Publishing House, 1975, p. 344.

Indifferentism Out of Place
"Hence indifferentism here is surely not in place. On the
contrary, we must challenge the teaching of any operation of the
Spirit independently of the Word within the Christian Church, and
combat it as a foreign element that has penetrated into the
Christian doctrine and as a deadly enemy of living personal
faith."
Francis Pieper
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vols., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1950, III, p. 161f.

"For the confounding of Law and Gospel that is common among the
sects consists in nothing else than this, that they instruct
alarmed sinners by prayer and inward wrestling to fight their way
into a state of grace until they feel grace indwelling in them,
instead of pointing them to the Word and the Sacraments."
C. F. W. Walther,
The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel, trans., W. H. T.
Dau, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1928, p. 153.
Ninth thesis

D. Pietism

Separate Visible and Invisible Church
"Pietist preachers were anxious to discover and in a certain sense
to separate the invisible congregation from the visible
congregation. They had to meet demands different than those of the
preceding period: they were expected to witness, not in the
objective sense, as Luther did, to God's saving acts toward all
men, but in a subjective sense of faith, as they themselves had
experienced it. In this way Pietism introduced a tendency toward
the dissolution of the concept of the ministry in the Lutheran
Church."
Helge Nyman, "Preaching (Lutheran): History,"
The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, 3 vol., ed. Julius
Bodensieck, Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House,
1965, III, p. 1943.

Weakened Confessionalism
"Pietism greatly weakened the confessional consciousness which was
characteristic of orthodox Lutheranism."
Helge Nyman, "Preaching (Lutheran): History,"
The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, 3 vol.,
ed. Julius Bodensieck, Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House,
1965, III, p. 1945.

"One who had experienced the wonder of faith in his inner life is
the true witness, even if he had not been called in an external
sense according to the order of the church. It now was relatively
easy to introduce lay preaching, thought it remained somewhat
incompatible with the Lutheran Confessions."
Helge Nyman, "Preaching (Lutheran): History,"
The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, 3 vol., ed. Julius
Bodensieck, Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House,
1965, III, p. 1944.

Reformed Errors Filtered through Pietism
"Furthermore, it must be admitted that the Reformed teaching of the
means of grace filtered, particularly through Pietism, also into
the Lutheran Church."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 143.

"What may be the reason why the Pietists, who were really
well-intentioned people, hit upon the doctrine that no one could be
a Christian unless he had ascertained the exact day and hour of his
conversion? The reason is that they imagined a person must
suddenly experience a heavenly joy and hear an inner voice telling
him that he had been received into grace and had become a
child of God. Having conceived this notion of the mode and manner
of conversion, they were forced to declare that a person must be
able to name the day and hour when he was converted, became a new
creature, received forgiveness of sins, and was robed in the
righteousness of Christ. However, we have already come to
understand in part what a great, dangerous, and fatal error this
is."
C. F. W. Walther,
The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel, trans., W. H. T.
Dau, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1928, p. 194f.
Thesis IX

Not Means of Grace but Inward State
"In so far as Pietism did not point poor sinners directly to the
means of grace, but led them to reflect on their own inward state
to determine whether their contrition was profound enough and their
faith of the right caliber, it actually denied the complete
reconciliation by Christ (the satisfactio vicaria), robbed
justifying faith of its true object, and thus injured personal
Christianity in its foundation and Christian piety in its very
essence."
Francis Pieper,
Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III, p. 175.

"Conversion was seen as a one-time act, consisting of God's offer
of grace and man's decision to accept it, as 'the breakthrough of
grace.' Perhaps it was not said in so many words; at any rate it
was a tacit assumption."
Martin Schmidt, "Pietism,"
The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, 3 vol., ed. Julius
Bodensieck, Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1965,
III, p. 1899.

Pietist True Church, the Conventicle
"The church is no longer the community of those who have been
called by the Word and the Sacraments, but association of the
reborn, of those who 'earnestly desire to be Christians'...The
church in the true sense consists of the small circles of pietists,
the 'conventicles,' where everyone knows everyone else and where
experiences are freely exchanged."
Martin Schmidt, "Pietism,"
The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, 3 vol., ed. Julius
Bodensieck, Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House,
1965, III, p. 1899.

No Need for Divine Means
"Only little weight is attached to the ministry of the Word, to
worship services, the Sacraments, to confession and absolution, and
to the observance of Christian customs; a thoroughly regenerated
person does not need these crutches at all. Pietism stressed the
personal element over against the institutional; voluntariness
versus compulsion; the present versus tradition, and the rights of
the laity over against the pastors."
Martin Schmidt, "Pietism,"
The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, 3 vol., ed. Julius
Bodensieck, Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House,
1965, III, p. 1899.

"Since the age of Rationalism and Lutheran Pietism a new spirit has
crept into the life of the church which is un-Lutheran,
un-Evangelical, and un-biblical. The Sacraments have been
neglected at the expense of the Word."
Walter G. Tillmanns, "Means of Grace: Use of,"
The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, 3 vol., Julius Bodensieck,
Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1965, II, p. 1505.

Pietists Avoid Doctrinal Issues
"All those doctrinal questions which were not immediately connected
with the personal life of faith were avoided. The standard for the
interpretation of Scripture thus became the need of the individual
for awakening, consolation, and exhortation. The congregation as
a totality was lost from view; in fact, pietistic preaching was
(and is) more apt to divide the congregation than to hold it
together."
Helge Nyman, "Preaching (Lutheran): History,"
The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, 3 vol., ed. Julius
Bodensieck, Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1965,
III, p. 1943.


III. Baptism


Anabaptists

Grace in Baptism
"It is taught among us that Baptism is necessary and that grace is
offered through it. Children, too, should be baptized, for in
Baptism they are committed to God and become acceptable to him.
On this account the Anabaptists who teach that infant Baptism is
not right are rejected."
Augsburg Confession, Article IX, Baptism, The Book of Concord,
ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia: Fortress Press,
1983, p. 33. German trans.

Anabaptists Condemned
"To obtain such faith God instituted the office of the ministry,
that is, provided the Gospel and the sacraments. Through these, as
through means, he gives the Holy Spirit, who works faith, when and
where he pleases, in those who hear the Gospel. And the Gospel
teaches that we have a gracious God, not by our own merits but by
the merit of Christ, when we believe this. Condemned are the
Anabaptists and others who teach that the Holy Spirit comes to us
through our own preparations, thoughts, and works without the
external word of the Gospel."
Augsburg Confession, Article V, The Office of the Ministry,
The Book of Concord,
ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia: Fortress Press,
1983, p. 31. German trans.

Contempt for Baptism
"We should be on our guard against the Anabaptists and sectarian
spirits, who speak contemptuously of Baptism and say that it is
nothing but ordinary water, which helps no one. They look at the
sacred act as a cow looks at a new door; for they see a poor
preacher standing there or some woman who baptizes in an emergency,
are offended at the sight, and say: Indeed! What might Baptism
be? Moreover, they state: Whoever does not believe is really not
baptized. In this way they dishonor and blaspheme the most worthy
Sacrament, not seeing any farther than a horse or a cow sees...."
Martin Luther,
What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass, St.
Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I, p. 45.
John 1:30-32

But No Children?
Acts 2:41 (KJV) Then they that gladly received his [word] were
baptized: and the same day there were added about three
thousand souls.

Baptism Not Useless
"Among us, the Gospel is taught purely and diligently. We have
therefore received this fruit from it, by God's favor, that no
Anabaptists have arisen in our churches since our people have been
armed by God's Word against the wicked and seditious faction of
these robbers. Among the many errors of the Anabaptists that we
condemn is also their assertion that the Baptism of children
is useless. It is most certain that the promise of salvation also
applies to little children. It does not apply to those who are
outside of Christ's church, where there is neither Word nor
sacrament, because Christ regenerates through Word and sacrament."
Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article IX, Baptism, #2,
The Book of Concord,
ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia: Fortress Press,
1959, p. 178. Matthew 28:19

The Power of Baptism
"To be sure, Baptism is so great that if you turn from sins and
appeal to the covenant of Baptism, your sins are forgiven. Only
see to it--if you sin in this wicked and wanton manner by presuming
on God's grace--that the judgment does not lay hold of you and
forestall your turning back. And even if you then wanted to
believe and trust in your Baptism, your trial might by God's
decree, be so great that faith could not stand the strain. If they
scarcely remain in the faith who do no sin or who fall because of
sheer weakness, where will your brazen wickedness remain, which has
challenged and mocked God's grace? Let us, therefore, walk with
care and fear that we may hold fast the riches of God's grace with
a firm faith and joyfully give thanks to His mercy forever and
ever. Amen."
Martin Luther,
What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I, p. 57.
Treatise on Baptism, 1519

"One must not make the sweeping assertion: God is not worshiped by
anything external. Therefore we should not ridicule all things
that are external in the worship of God. For when God speaks about
a splinter, His Word makes the splinter as important as the sun.
It is, therefore, profane language to say that the water of Baptism
is only water; for the water of Baptism has the Word added to it.
Therefore it is like a glowing or fiery iron, which is as truly
fire as it is iron and does all that fire usually does. But only
the pious see and appreciate the Word in the water; a cow or a dog
sees only water."
Martin Luther,
What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I, p. 45.
Psalm 122:3

"The world is now full of sects which exclaim that Baptism is
merely an external matter and that external matters are of no use.
However, let it be ever so much an external matter; here stand
God's Word and command which institute, establish, and confirm
Baptism. However, whatever God institutes and commands cannot be
useless but must be an altogether precious matter, even if it
were worth less than a straw."
Martin Luther,
What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I, p. 43.
Large Catechism
Matthew 28:19

"Those who claim that Baptism is not a Means of Grace, no washing
of regeneration, must continually deny these words of Scripture,
Gal. 3:27: 'For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ,
have put on Christ." [Also Acts 2:38; Titus 3:5]
Francis Pieper,
The Difference between Orthodox and Heterodox Churches, and
Supplement
, Coos Bay, Oregon: St. Paul's Lutheran Church,
1981, p. 40. Galatians 3:27

Infant Baptism
"How can there be any reason for the baptism of little children
except according to this understanding: No one is free from
defilement, even if he has lived but one day on earth. And because
through the Sacrament of Baptism the filth of our birth is removed,
therefore also little children are baptized."
[Origen, Homily 14 on Luke]
Martin Chemnitz,
Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1971, I, p. 250.
Luke

"For this reason the catholic church preaches that little children
ought to be baptized, because of original sin, concerning which
that most holy man well exclaimed: 'I was brought forth in
iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me.'" [Chrysostom,
Homily on Adam and Eve]
Martin Chemnitz,
Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1971, I, p. 250f.
Cf. Weinrich article on term "Catholic"
Genesis

"To be sure, we are all called Christians. We are baptized and
regenerated through Baptism. But all of us do not remain with our
Baptism. Many fall away from Christ and become false Christians.
But the honest Christians are thinly sown."
Martin Luther,
What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I, p. 280.

"There is on earth no greater comfort than Baptism."
Martin Luther,
What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I, p. 61.

"Thus we see what a very splendid thing Baptism is. It snatches us
from the jaws of the devil, makes us God's own, restrains and
removes sin, and then daily strengthens the new man within us. It
is and remains ever efficacious until we pass from this state of
misery to eternal glory. For this reason everyone should consider
his Baptism as his daily dress, to be worn constantly. Every day
he should be found in the faith and its fruits, suppressing the old
man, and growing up in the new; for if we want to be Christians, we
must practice the work whereby we are Christians. But if anyone
falls from baptismal grace, let him return to it. For as Christ,
the Mercy Seat, does not withdraw from us or forbid us to come to
Him again even though we sin, so all His treasures and gifts also
remain with us."
Martin Luther,
What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass, St.
Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I, p. 61.
Article on baptism, 1529

"Whoever is baptized in Christ is baptized through His suffering
and blood or, to state it more clearly, through Baptism he is
bathed in the blood of Christ and is cleansed from sins. For this
reason St. Paul calls Baptism a "washing of regeneration" (Titus
3:5); and according to what Christians say and picture, the
Sacraments flow from the wounds of Christ. And what they say and
picture is right." [Plass footnote: "Thus Jerome (d. 420) sees the
Sacrament symbolized by the blood and water that flowed from the
side of the dead Christ (John 19:34). Similarly St. Augustine (d.
430). In Luther's days pictures and woodcuts presented the same
view. See W 30, II, 527, note; SL 13a, 491f.]
Martin Luther,
What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I, p. 46.
to Duke George, 1533
John 19:34

"There are the infants, bare and naked in body and soul, having
neither faith nor works. Then the Christian Church comes forward
and prays, that God would pour faith into the child; not that our
faith should help the child, but that it may obtain a faith of its
own. If it has faith, then after that whatever it does is well
done, whether it suckle its mother's breast, or whether it soil
itself, or whatever it may please to do."
Martin Luther,
Sermons of Martin Luther, 8 vols., ed., John Nicholas Lenker,
Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1983, IV, p. 378.
Twelfth Sunday after Trinity
Mark 7:31-37

"Observe from this text how Christ in plain words ascribes to
baptism, which He calls water, such glory and power as to say that
the Holy Spirit is present in it, and that by its means a person is
born anew. By this statement all false doctrines and errors
against the doctrine of faith and baptism are overthrown."
Martin Luther,
Sermons of Martin Luther, 8 vols., ed., John Nicholas Lenker,
Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1983, III, p. 434.
Trinity Sunday
John 3:1-15

[endangered infant not baptized in womb] "But the women who are
present at the birth should kneel down and with a prayer of faith
commit the endangered infant to God who is mighty and able to do
more than we ask. Without a doubt He will accept the infant for
the sake of the prayer of the believers."
Martin Luther,
What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I, p. 49.
J. Aurifaber, undated

"There is one body and one Spirit--just as you were called to one
hope when you were called--one Lord, one faith, one baptism; one
God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all."
NIV. Ephesians 4:4-6

Ephesians 5:26 (KJV) That he might sanctify and cleanse it with
the washing of water by the [word], 27 That he might present it to himself a glorious church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish.

"I still maintain, as I have maintained in the Postil (SL 11,
496f.) that the surest Baptism is infant Baptism. For an old
person may deceive, may come to Christ as a Judas and permit
himself to be baptized. But a child cannot deceive. It comes to
Christ in Baptism as John came to Him and as the little children
were brought to Him, that His Word and work may come over them,
touch them, and thus make them holy. For His Word and work cannot
pass by without effect; and in Baptism they are directed at the
child alone. If they were to fail of success here, they would have
to be entire failures and useless means, which is impossible."
Martin Luther,
What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I, p. 50.
Letter to two ministers, 1528

Baptism Belongs to God
"The devil is always plaguing the world by keeping people from
distinguishing between the work of God and the work of men....But
you should know that though no human being believed Baptism and the
Gospel, the Gospel and Baptism would still be right; for both are
not mine but God's Word and work."
Martin Luther,
What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1959, II, p. 705.
November 24, 1537 John 1:30-34

"But here it is written that when Christ was baptized, all three
Persons of the Trinity were present--God the Father, God the Son,
God the Holy Spirit...and that the heavens stood open, too. In
fact, God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit daily stand about and at
the side of our own Baptism....For this reason we should highly
esteem and honor Baptism and say: Baptism was not devised by any
human being, but God instituted it; and it is not simple water,
but God's Word is in it and with it, which makes of its water a
washing of the soul and a washing of regeneration."
Martin Luther,
What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I, p. 45.
John 1:30-32

IV. Holy Communion


Closed Communion
"Is the Lord's Supper the place to display my toleration, my
Christian sympathy, or my fellowship with another Christian, when
that is the very point in which most of all we differ; and in which
the difference means for me everything--means for me, the reception
of the Savior's atonement? Is this the point to be selected for
the display of Christian union, when in fact it is the
very point in which Christian union does not exist?"
Theodore E. Schmauk and C. Theodore Benze,
The Confessional Principle and the Confessions, as
Embodying the Evangelical Confession of the Christian Church
,
Philadelphia: 1911, p. 905f.

Communion as Medicine
"The body of Christ is to the sick a medicine, to pilgrims a way;
it strengthens the weak, delights the strong, heals weariness,
preserves health. Through it man becomes more gentle under
reproof, more patient under labor, more ardent for love, wiser for
caution, more ready to obey, more devoted to giving of thanks."
Martin Chemnitz,
Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer, St.
Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II, p. 234.

Chrysostom
Chrysostom: "If those who touched the hem of His garment were
properly healed, how much more shall we be strengthened if we have
Him in us whole? He will quiet in us the savage law of our
members, He will quench the perturbations of the mind, drive out
all sicknesses, raise us up from every fall, and, when the power of
the enemy has been overcome, He will incite us to true piety and
indeed will transform us into His own image."
Martin Chemnitz,
Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II, p. 234.

Ignatius
[Ignatius calls the Eucharist] "a medicine of immortality, an
antidote, that we may not die but live in God through Jesus Christ,
a cleansing remedy through warding off and driving out evils."
Martin Chemnitz,
Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,
St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II, p. 234.

The Moment and the Synodical Conference
"It should perhaps be mentioned also that some of our Lutheran
teachers limited the real presence to the moment of eating and
drinking. This, too, goes beyond the specific words of Christ."
Review of Bjarne Wollan Teigen, The Lord's Supper in the Theology
of Martin Chemnitz
, W. Gawrisch, Wisconsin Lutheran Quarterly,
Spring, 1987, 84, p. 155.

God's Honor and Real Presence
"The Reformed, and all Reformed sects, deny the Real Presence of
the body and blood of Christ in the Lord's Supper. Through this
they detract from God's honor."
Francis Pieper,
The Difference between Orthodox and Heterodox Churches, and
Supplement
, Coos Bay, Oregon: St. Paul's Lutheran Church,
1981, p. 36.

V. The Sermon


God's Will and the Sermon
"It is not God's will that anyone should be damned but that all men
should turn themselves to him and be saved forever...To this end,
in his boundless kindness and mercy, God provides for the public
proclamation of his divine, eternal law and the wonderful counsel
concerning our redemption, namely, the holy and only saving Gospel
of his eternal Son, our only Saviour and Redeemer, Jesus Christ.
Thereby he gathers an eternal church for himself out of the human
race and works in the hearts of men true repentance and knowledge
of their sins and true faith in the Son of God, Jesus Christ. And
it is God's will to call men to eternal salvation, to draw them to
himself, convert them, beget them anew, and sanctify them through
this means and in no other way--namely, through his holy Word
(which one hears it preached or reads it) and the sacraments (when
they are used according to his Word)." 1 Cor. 1:21
Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration, Article II, Free Will, #50,
The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:
Fortress Press, 1959, p. 530f. 1 Corinthians 1:21


Office of Ministry
"To obtain such faith God instituted the office of the ministry,
that is, provided the Gospel and the sacraments. Through these, as
through means, he gives the Holy Spirit, who works faith, when and
where he pleases, in those who hear the Gospel. And the Gospel
teaches that we have a gracious God, not by our own merits but by
the merit of Christ, when we believe this. Condemned are the
Anabaptists and others who teach that the Holy Spirit comes to us
through our own preparations, thoughts, and works without the
external word of the Gospel."
Augsburg Confession, V., The Office of the Ministry,
The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:
Fortress Press, 1983, p. 31. German trans.

The Lutheran Sermon
"To the Lutheran the sermon, as the preached Word, is a means of
grace. Through it the Holy Spirit calls, gathers, enlightens, and
sanctifies the whole Christian church on earth. It is a constant
offer of pardon; a giving of life, as well as a nourishing and
strengthening of life. In the Reformed churches the sermon is apt
to be more hortatory and ethical. It partakes more of the
sacrificial than of the sacramental character. The individuality
of the preacher, the subjective choice of a text, the using of it
merely for a motto, the discussion of secular subjects, the
unrestrained platform style, lack of reverence, lack of dignity,
and many other faults are common, and are not regarded as
unbecoming the messenger of God in His temple. Where there is a
properly trained Lutheran consciousness such things repel, shock,
and are not tolerated."
G. H. Gerberding,
The Lutheran Pastor, Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1915,
p. 278.

Diligent to Hear
"'The hearers of the Word of God who understand the doctrine of the
means of grace will be diligent hearers of it. While God has
commanded the pastor to preach the Gospel, He has commanded the
congregation to hear it. The Gospel is the means not only of
converting the sinner, but also of strengthening the faith
of those who already are converted. Christians having this
knowledge will be faithful and diligent in the use of the means of
grace.'"
Edwin E. Pieplow, "The Means of Grace,"
The Abiding Word, ed., Theodore Laetsch, St. Louis: Concordia
Publishing House, 1946, II, p. 346.

Real Church Growth
"The correct understanding of the doctrine of the Means of Grace
will have a salutary influence on pastors and hearers; without the
proper use of the Means of Grace no sinner can expect to be saved
and no Church can hope to grow."
Edwin E. Pieplow, "The Means of Grace,"
The Abiding Word, ed., Theodore Laetsch, St. Louis: Concordia
Publishing House, 1946, II, p. 344.

God Wills the Word to be Effective
"We shall now set forth from the Word of God how man is converted
to God, how and by what means (namely, the oral Word and the holy
sacraments) the Holy Spirit wills to be efficacious in us by giving
and working true repentance, faith, and new spiritual power and
ability for good in our hearts, and how we are to relate ourselves
to and use these means."
Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration, Article II, Free Will, 48,
The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:
Fortress Press, 1959, p. 530.

Do Not Question Work of Holy Spirit
"On the one hand, it is true that both the preacher's planting and
watering and the hearer's running and willing would be in vain, and
no conversion would follow, if there were not added the power and
operation of the Holy Spirit, who through the Word preached and
heard illuminates and converts hearts so that men believe this Word
and give their assent to it. On the other hand, neither the
preacher nor the hearer should question this grace and operation of
the Holy Spirit, but should be certain that, when the Word of God
is preached, pure and unalloyed according to God's command and
will, and when the people diligently and earnestly listen to and
meditate on it, God is certainly present with his grace and gives
what man is unable by his own powers to take or to give. We should
not and cannot pass judgment on the Holy Spirit's presence,
operations and gifts merely on the basis of our feeling..."
Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration, Article II, Free Will,
55-56,
The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:
Fortress Press, 1959, p. 531f.

Most Important Act
"The most important of all the pastor's acts is his public
preaching...A minister may be ever so good as a liturgist, ever so
gifted as a ruler of his congregation, or in private pastoral work,
but all this can never take the place of right preaching."
(Walther, Pastorale, p. 76)
G. H. Gerberding, The Lutheran Pastor, Minneapolis: Augsburg
Publishing House, 1915, p. 275.

Christ Assures Us: the Word is Effective
"For Christ wants to assure us, as was necessary, that the Word is
efficacious when it is delivered by men and that we should not look
for another word from heaven."
Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article XXVIII, Eccles. Power,
The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert,
Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1959, p. 284.

"In his Word he has revealed to us as much as we need to know in
this life, and wherever the Scriptures in this case give us clear,
certain testimony, we shall simply believe it and not argue that
the human nature in Christ is not capable of it."
Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration, Article VIII., Person of
Christ, The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert,
Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1959, p. 601.

"For the Word through which we are called is a ministry of the
Spirit--'which gives the Spirit' (2 Cor. 3:8) and a 'power of God'
to save (Rom. 1:16). And because the Holy Spirit wills to be
efficacious through the Word, to strengthen us, and to give us
power and ability, it is God's will that we should accept the Word,
believe and obey it."
Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration, Article XI., Election,
The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:
Fortress Press, 1959, p. 621.

"Every poor sinner must therefore attend on it, hear it with
diligence, and in no way doubt the drawing of the Father because
the Holy Spirit wills to be present in the Word and to be
efficacious with his power through it. And this is the drawing of
the Father."
Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration, Article XI., Election,
The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:
Fortress Press, 1959, p. 629.

"The reason for such contempt of the Word is not God's
foreknowledge but man's own perverse will, which rejects or
perverts the means and instrument of the Holy Spirit which God
offers to him through the call and resists the Holy Spirit who
wills to be efficaciously active through the Word, as Christ says,
'How often would I have gathered you together and you would not!'
(Matt. 23:37)
Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration, Article XI, Election, 41,
The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:
Fortress Press, 1959, p. 623. Matthew 23:37

Efficacy of Judgment
"When the efficacy of Word and Sacraments encounters man's unbelief
and persistent resistance, their efficacy is not destroyed; but it
is transformed from an efficacy of grace to one of judgment (2
Corinthians 2:16; 1 Corinthians 11:29)."
Henry Eyster Jacobs,
A Summary of the Christian Faith, Philadelphia: General Council
Publication House, 1913, p. 320.

Baier: Power of Word
"Baier (124): 'Truly that same infinite virtue which is
essentially per se and independently in God, and by which He
enlightens and converts men, is communicated to the Word, and,
although it is communicated to the Word, yet it must be considered
as divine'...But it by no means follows from this that there
is a commingling of God and the Word in regard to this divine
power; hence Baier (128) says: 'They frequently and diligently
impress it upon us that the same virtue belongs to God and the
Scriptures, but not in the same way; for that of God is essential,
fundamental, original, and independent, while that of the
Scriptures is dependent and participative or derived.'...Hence it
is said of the Word that it exhibits its power and efficacy
organikos, or instrumentally....'"
Heinrich Schmid,
Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church,
trans., Charles A. Hay and Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia: United
Lutheran Publication House, 1899, p. 505.

Hollazius: Qualities of Word
"Hollazius (993): 'A divine power is communicated to the Word
by the Holy Spirit joined with it indissolubly.' Hence, there is
a native or intrinsic power and efficacy belonging to the Word,
deeply inherent in it. The Dogmaticians draw proofs of this, (1)
From the qualities which the divine Word ascribes to itself, John
6:63; Romans 1:16; Hebrews 4:12-13; 1 Thessalonians 2:13; 1 Peter
1:23; James 1:21. (2) From the similar supernatural and divine
operations which are ascribed to the Word of God and the Holy
Spirit, ex. gr., calling, 2 Timothy 2:14; illumination, 2 Peter
1:19; conversion, Jeremiah 23:29; regeneration, 1 Peter 1:23;
justification, 2 Corinthians 3:9; sanctification, John 17:17."
Heinrich Schmid,
Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, trans.,
Charles A. Hay and Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia: United Lutheran
Publication House, 1899, p. 505.

"(3) Hollazius (993): 'The Word of God, as such, cannot be
conceived of without the divine virtue, or the Holy Spirit, who is
inseparable from His Word. For if the Holy Spirit could be
separated from the Word of God, it would not be the Word of God or
of the Spirit, but a word of man. Nor is there any other Word of
God, which is in God, or with which the men of God have been
inspired, than that which is given in the Scriptures or is preached
or is treasured up in the human mind. But, as it cannot be denied
that that is the divine will, counsel, mind, and the wisdom of God,
so it cannot be destitute of the divine virtue or efficacy.'"
Heinrich Schmid,
Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, trans.,
Charles A. Hay and Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia: United Lutheran
Publication House, 1899, p. 505.

"Hollazius (993) uses the following figures: 'It possesses and
retains its internal power and efficacy even when not used, just as
the illuminating power of the sun continues, although, when the
shadow of the moon intervenes, no person may see it; and just as an
internal efficacy belongs to the seed, although it may not be sown
in the field.'"
Heinrich Schmid,
Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, trans.,
Charles A. Hay and Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia: United Lutheran
Publication House, 1899, p. 506.

"'In order to avoid misapprehension, it is expressly observed that
the Word does not operate physically (by the contact of an agent,
as opium, poison, fire, etc.), but morally (by enlightening the
mind, moving the will, etc.); and a distinction is made between the
efficacy of the Word considered in the first act and in the second
act, or between efficacy and efficiency. When it is said that the
Word operates extra usum, when not used, it is only meant that the
power is constantly inherent in the Word, just as the power to give
light always exists in the sun; so that, when the Word is to
produce a certain effect, the power must not first come to it, but
that the Word exercises its legitimate influence only where it is
properly used.'" (Hollazius, 993)
Heinrich Schmid,
Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, trans.,
Charles A. Hay and Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia: United Lutheran
Publication House, 1899, p. 506.

"Hollazius (992) thus sums up the doctrine: 'The Word of God is
the most efficacious means of salvation, for its power and efficacy
are not only objective, but also effective; not consisting in moral
suasion, but in supernatural operation, not external and coming to
it when used by men, but intrinsic in the Word; not accidental, but
necessary, by a divinely ordained necessity, and therefore not
separable, but perpetual, inherent in the Word itself extra usum,
as the first act. This efficacy is truly divine, producing the
same effect as the Holy Spirit, who is perpetually united with the
Word, which (effect) the Spirit influences together with the Word,
by the divine power which belongs to the Holy Spirit originally and
independently, but to the divine Word communicatively and
dependently, on account of its mysterious, intimate,
and individual union with the Spirit.'"
Heinrich Schmid,
Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, trans.,
Charles A. Hay and Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia: United Lutheran
Publication House, 1899, p. 507.

Hulsem: Holy Spirit Never Absent from Word
"Hulsem. (in Quenstedt, I, 186) says: 'That elevation of the sense
of the Word, as they call it, is by no means an accessory and
separate power of the Holy Spirit, which may sometimes be absent
from the Word; but the Word of God embraces in itself, by its own
natural constitution, wonderful and inexplicable divine energy, and
power of penetration, far better adapted than the sentences of
Seneca and Cato to arouse the minds of readers.'"
Heinrich Schmid,
Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, trans.,
Charles A. Hay and Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia: United Lutheran
Publication House, 1899, p. 508.

Quensted: Unity of Energy and Operation
"Quenstedt (I, 183): 'We are to assume here not only a certain
conjunction or union of distinct actions, or even a unity of aims
or effects, but also a unity of energy and operation. For the Holy
Spirit does not by Himself do something, and the Word of God by
itself something else, in the conversion of men; but they produce
the one effect by one and the same action. For such is the
peculiar nature of the principal and subordinate causes,
intrinsically united together, that they produce an effect by one
and the same action. Thus the soul and the eye see by a single
action, and not by distinct actions.'"
Heinrich Schmid,
Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, trans.,
Charles A. Hay and Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia: United Lutheran
Publication House, 1899, p. 505.

"Quenstedt (I. 172): 'The divine Word is not the principal in the
work of conversion, regeneration, and salvation, but it is only a
suitable means or organ which God ordinarily uses in producing
spiritual effects, not indeed by necessity or indigence, as if He
so bound His efficacy in the conversion of men to His Word that He
could not convert men without any means, or by any other means or
organ than His Word if He wished, but of His own free will, because
thus it pleased Him. 1 Corinthians 1:21.'"
Heinrich Schmid,
Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, trans.,
Charles A. Hay and Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia: United Lutheran
Publication House, 1899, p. 505f. 1 Corinthians 1:21

"Quenstedt (I, 170): 'Whether the Word be read or not, whether it
be heard and believed or not, yet the efficacy of its spiritual
effects is always intrinsically inherent in it by the divine
arrangement and communication, nor does this divine efficacy only
come to it when it is used. For the Word of God, as such, cannot
even be conceived of apart from the divine virtue and gracious
working of the Holy Spirit, because this is inseparable from the
Word of God.'"
Heinrich Schmid,
Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, trans.,
Charles A. Hay and Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia: United Lutheran
Publication House, 1899, p. 506.

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